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1 




PLAN AND 




MODERN 



STORE 





XTRUDALITE 



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L.O.F. CLAS 





mmamvf^i'*^' 




[BLANK PAGE] 




CCA 



IN Te RNATlOHAL 



SEP 2 6 1S38 



HOW 




PLAN 




CONSIROCI 



MODERN 



STOREFRONTS 



OF 



EHRUDUIH AND 



LIBBEy-OWENS-FORD 



GLASS "PRODyCIS 




L I B B E Y • W E N S • F R D 



GLASS 



C 



p A N y 



NICHOLAS BUILDING 



TOLEDO 



OHIO 



! 







BETTER 





STREET 



1 
1 
( 



AMERICA'S MAIN STREET is the ^voild's niosi imijortant sliopping center. And the purpose 
ui this book is lo pi()\ ide informal ion "which can help to build a better Main Street by adding 
new bcauL) and form lo the places wheie buyer ami seller meet, • • • No one set of Individuals 
can be whoTly credited with the success of America's retail stoves. Owners ha\e been c[iuck to sense and 
satisfy the needs of the buyin^i ptd^lic. Bui progressive architects hav'e developed unusual designs to 
sol\ e the nicichants \aricd problenis of disjjiay. Antl. helping each, the nianufactmer has made a\'aii- 
able building products and pract:ices wliich can gi\c brilliant new life, color and sparkling orig- 
inalit)' to niodein stcjrcfronts in contrast to the diab facades of yesterday. • • • This Mantial 
of Modern Storefronts has been prej)ared as a somxe of practical information for all who read it. 
In it the Owner ^\^i\\ find suggestions for inipioving his present store or for planning a new one. 
The Architect— and all others who design or build— ^\•i]l find nituh technical inf(irmation on plan- 
ning, cons I riK lion anci the use of niodern materials— extruded metal and glass— man ufactmed b\ 
Idbbcy.OwensTord as the tools Avitli \\hi( h to build a better Main Streel in e\'ery section of the country. 



ul modern storefronts 

e result of the owner's 

merchandising^ the ap- 

ori^inahty of the 

^eci and the use of modern 

n&ii which a progressive 

'facturer has made avail- 

»« 4ic Libbey. Owens. Ford 

.3i iiipany recognizes the 

Im inc^ of all three factors. 

uTdctures and distributes 

"dp.te line of products 

to any type of store- 

:ns bool< describes 

i>nd tells how they may 

presentin g rt^ 

rs . Ford coordi- 

ests toward the 

merchandising^ 

And construc- 

tter storefronts 

^m^rir^ Main Street. 



r; 



ea 



oe 
— and 



STORE OWNER -THE MERCHANT 



BUILDER 



MANUFACTURER • DISTRIBUTOR 



\ 



N 





* 




MODERN STOREFRONTS 





FACTS 




CKLY 



STOREFRONT P L A N Nl fJ G P U T N F 



Planning priiiciplei and dimen- 
sional data Liiat iurni a broad 
basis for die design of any store- 
froni arc discussed in diis sec- 
tion, tndudcd under various 
headings nrc specific suggestions 
for applvin^i^ these principles in 
the devclopmcnL of attractive, 
modern fioiUs for particular 
tvpes of retail stores. 



Planning the Storefront 6-7 

Principles of Show Window Design 8-9 

Small Stores and Shops 10-11 

Stores That Sell Service 12-13 

Large Stores and Markets 14-15 

Sign Data 16 

Facade Treatments for Modern Stores 17 



E n R U D A L 1 T E ■ DETAILS PART TWO 



-V ctjinpkte explanation ol the 
L.O.F. storefront metal Extruda- 
litc ijiclucling quarter-full size 
drawings of Extriidalite mem- 
bers is covered in this heacbno\ 
With it are construciiou details 
which indicate the ^^ide range of 
Exiriid;jlilc apjjlicaiion and em- 
bod\ L.O.F- sunulards ol "ood 
)jractice in extruded metal con- 
^iriRtion, 



What Extrudalite Is 18 19 

How ExtrudaJite Works 20 21 

How to Design With Extrudalite 22 23 

Spring Tension Sash— 500 Series 24-25 

Spring Tension Sash — 300 Series 26 27 

Lightweight Sash— 100 Series 28 29 

Transoms and Awning Bars , . 30 31 

Bulkheads and Facings 32 33 

Extrudalite Doors and Vents 34 35 



I. 0. F. GLASS PRODUCTS .... P A R T I HR E E 



Descriptive and technical data in 
this section pr(jvidc a practical 
basis for the sjjecification and 
use of L.O.F, Glass Products, Il- 
lustrations and scale details ini 
der various headings embody 
approved methods of applica- 
tion and sugge.^l the many ^u- 
ried uses of glass in modern 
storefi"ont cr>nstruction. 



The Wide Range of L.O.F. Glass Products 36-37 

Vitrolite Structural Glass — Characteristics and Colors. 38 -39 

Construction With Vitrolite 40-43 

Vitrolux Glass- Description and Pertormance Data. . .44-47 

Construction With Vitrolux 48 51 

Data on Luminous Vitrolux Elements 52-54 

Blue Ridge Decorative Glasses — 

Uses and Selection Data 55-57 

AKLO Heat Absorbing Glass 58 

L.O.F. Polished Plate Glass 59 

Mirrors of Polished Plate Glass 60-61 

Where to Buy L.O.F. Storefront Products 62-64 



L. 0. F. 



A N U A L OF 



E R N 



S T R E F R N IS 




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t-v^'-^:^ 



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EXIRA 



PROF 




THAT COME FROM 



UP-IO-DAIE 



STOREFRONTS 



PROFIT is the chief reason foranystore'sexistence. 
Obviously the more people enterins the storc^ 
the greater the profit. But extra profits — success be- 
yond a merely adequate return — can come to the 
store owner who will capitalize the buying public s 
instantaneous attraction to a storefront so modern in 
every detail of design and construction that it pro- 
claims without question the character and quality of 
the merchandise on sale. No owner would hesitate 
to Invest in larger or more complete stocks if^ by 
doing so, he could swell his profitable income. By 
spending only a small part of his yearly stock invest- 



ment, the progressive merchant can have an up-to- 
date storefront that will bring the public into his 
store and extra profits to his till. The buying public 
is drawn to storefronts alive with stimulating light 
and color — color that vibrates fresh and clean by 
day and by night is rich and luminous. With the 
stamp of public approval come profits to the pro- 
gressive merchant. And every new buyer, attracted 
by the gleaming modern beauty of an up-to-date 
storefront, helps to widen the merchant's oppor- 
tunities for securing the pleasant things in life that 
extra profits bring within his reach. 




WHAT EXTRA PROFITS CAN BUY 

ALL of us yearn for, and look forward to. tlic time 
.when tlie tliiiij^s we liave dreamed about will 
become realities. ^V^e work lon-^ hours to make these 
[personal and)itions come 
Lrue ... to give our lamil) 
the things that have l)een 
only (heauis bclore . . . the 
home i n the co u n t r v. 
phinned and rcplanncd so 
many times tliat it seems 
to have already lived for 
years ... a pleasant, cond'r>rrahle phue in \vlii( h m 
live, a quiet ha\eu from the hum and liusile ol the 
city and a friendly shelter for the days ^\hen chihlren 
are grown up and business has been given into 
youui^er, stronger hands. 

Or, perhaps, you have dreamed of travel. Leisurely 
trips to the fascinating places in oiu" great coinury 
. . . journey by sea to far-a\\ay lands that capture the 
imagination. Lucky is tlie man who can make such 

dreams come true. 

It may be that you are not huerested in travel 
and that ^'our thoughts are concerned uith the efhi- 
cation of yoiu" children ... to 
give them the best possiljle 
start m the u'orld . . . your 
dream has ahvays en\isioncd a 
scene on commencement day 
witli that child of yoius recei\- 
ing a diploma . . . and all be-< 
cause dilicrence and oood busi- 
ness management on your part 
has made it possible. 

And there are many other things w'hich extra 
profits can buy . . . things which gi\e the solid satis- 
faction of o\vnership or add that extra sparkle to 
the enjoyment of life . . . that membership in the 
golf club tliat is particidarly attractive . . . the man 




who loves the \\ater always ivants to ha\e his own 
boat . . . the fellow with a hobbv \vaiits new and bet- 
ter ecpdpmeut. a set of power tools, a mo\'ie camera. 
Again, all these represent pejsonal dreams that 
niaiiv of us !ia\'e hojics will some d;iy come true. 

AVhatevcr form vour 
dreams ha\ e taken, the\ 
general I v run up ai^ainst 
the everlastiug problem ol 
how to j)a\ for 1 1 Kin because, 
in the hnal analysis, mnsi 
dreaurs are luxmies tliat tlie 
average man can obtain 
soleh ihiongli the a\ailahilit\ ol surplus limds. The 
lulhllment ol vour dieam deiKiids on how many 
people enter vour store. A shabln. otnnio<led store 
offers no invitation to ihe passing slujpper. .An 
Uj>-to-date, well planned storclroni ol modern, (olor- 
ful glass and gleaming melal does. It is a draniaiic 
appeal to stop, to look, to enter and t(_) hiiv bu( li 
a storefront is a soutul iu\estnunt \\ hi( h hi iu'^s 
those sought-lor exfrn jjtofifs to the pioi^ressive mer- 
chant. In this manner I lis (lie.mrs t au re.ich Itd- 
(illnient. 




I\ all sections ol the ("oun- 
tr). Lib! >e\.() weirs. Fort I 
repre-sentati\es stand ready 
with experienced ad\ i( c to 
help de\elop tip - to - date 
storefronts that 2,"ive rxh/t 
jjiofUs to the merchant. In 
this book will be tound 
much practical and trustworthv inlorinatif)n on 
storefront planning and construction \^■ith pioducts 
manuhicturecl by Libbey .Owens . Ford. And for 
additional information, call or write tlie L.O.F. fac- 
tory representative, distribiuor or dealer in your 
locality. Consult list on page 6t or telephone book. 







E MODERN STORE INVITES BOYERS 



Lk Iv :i Liiiiili.li I r iaU'iiMik ni a liiu- old In in, ;i slniriVtun is :in iiulic al inn n| 
Inisinrss ( li;n aH(M and siihshnu (\ Ami il W is \\ rl I pLn 1 1 u (L men Inn In ( r>ii 
sli ut lion, ^c'^c■[all^ up-io-tlalc and anr;Hll^■t^ in a|i]>caiauu\ i( Main|)s die uwnn ;is 
an al)lr. ]>i(j^r('ssi\ r n)fielianl u'illi uHachandisc ol iMint'slly t'cpicsciiliHl i|u.dil) aiul 
fair \':iln<'s. Tlic windows ni;iv dis|)la\' I lie inr'i t liatHlis(\ Bin it is (Iw I acaih* :is ;i 
u'linU^ (hill I MS I ani'iK Is c\v.^ in ii, I lu^ !iu>dri n sKntI nnn niak(^ innir irath^ by 
u-lliijj; {\m- passMi}^ worhl llu' nalnic ul ihu >.ii(*p aiul JinilJiif; n lij taiin jiid huy. 



e 
I 

£ 
I 
6 
I 

f 
i 



PARI ONE-SIOREFRONI hkU 




SOUND MERCHANDISING PRINCIPLES 
GOVERN PLANNING OF STOREFRO NIS 



P) ' lAII. iiicK liaiJts make proliLs in jMcjjxjilioii lo 
' * ihe niiiiiljci <}{ ( tI^l<Jlnt■rs iIkiI t-nter their stores 
iiiifl make puielia.ses. And since die front ot the sLore 
is an inijjtntant means oi attiattino people, its plan- 
ning aiui eonstruction must be based npon sound 
Miei( liandi.'iin;^ jjimciples it it is succcsstully to serve 
irs purpose (A biinj^im^ in trade. 

The planninj; ol modem siorelronts has l>econie 
ahii(»st a science, lot ecminien iai enieijjrise has le- 
seai-(hed selbn<^ methods: charted ciisioiner reattioii 
t(j hirms. anani^enienls, (olors: and measured sales 
vobinie in leinis ol "(oiisiuiier (cjnilort", a term diat 
lUMs die scale ol die phvsieal and psychohx^icai inler- 
esls (jl the iiiaji who bLi\.s. Stcjieiicnit construt ticjn is 
ecpialiv as s< ienufit an ait. FrtJin huts Lineo\eref! bv 
selHn*j research. industr\ has develojied spec iaii/ed 
j)i odnt is and prac tic es to ,^i\c new ttjini and bi illiant 
l)eaiit\ to the place \vhere buyer and seller meet. 

Any storelronl. ho\ve\ei larj^e or small, is essen- 
tiallv a tinee-diiiieiisioiied ad\ et tisemeiit of the i^oofls 
ofFeied J'or sale. It has a threedold junction; tcj sell 
the name ol the sun'e cMvner; to display his product; 
and to afFoifl access to the inferior. 

dhe entire sioretroni ije^.^ins to tunction as an 
ach ertisenient horn a distance. It lellects tiie st\le 
and character of the establislnneiit. It mav appear 
dignified or reserved, novel and prcjgrcssi\'c. It ma\ 
be so desiiiiied as t<j su-'-'est luxurious or ecojiomical 
mer( handise. and thirs helji to attract into the store 
the bu)ei to wlujm the ^(;ocls will ajjpeal. 

As the Ijuver conies c loser to it. details of the store- 
front should (onlirm his distant imjjression anrl invite 
insjjection ol merchandise. Windows are priniarih 
foi cHsplavs tliat will influence the buver to enter the 
store. And this should always be made easv throut^h 
an attiac tive and convenient arrangeinent of the vesti- 
bule and entrance. 

Different tvpes of stores obviously recjinre different 
storefront treaiments in order to reflect the character 
of the i)roduct sold and tcj prov ide for its attractive 
di-splay. The size ot the store — that is, its interior 
floor area — also governs the size nf the vestibule and 
entrance to provide adecpiate traffic capacity. 

Stores h)r small objects — such as bakeries, jewelry 
stores, delicatessens, liquor and tobacco shops — 
rec|uiie conipaiativciv small windows with floors set 
higher from the ground than stores wliicli display 



large objects such as automobiles, tin nilure. t lolhing, 
musical iiistnmients oi spoitinu ''oods. Stores that 

1 O ■' 

have a wide range of displav rccjuirenienis. iiu hiding 
iiKjst department stores and ch tig stcjics. recjuire win- 
dow's that offer a maximum of flexibilitv in die 
arrangement of displavs. Shops that render a service 
rather than sell goods, such as restatnants, baibn and 
beautv shops, tic ket oflit es and the like, mav have 
wiiid(jws designed U) e.\j.)iess the tharaciei ol the serv- 
ice rendered or to reveal the Jntericjr, wliicli, in a 
sense, becomes the rlisplav itself. 

Ccnnmon to ever) L)pe ot store is the ni:i:d to 
caplla!i/e every advantage that retail mere hatidisliig 
and modern industrv have made available. 1 o ai c oiii- 
plish this result unfailingly, t!ie ulinost ingeiuiilv iiiav 
be necessary to overcome physical handicaps of an 
untavorable site, the ccnnpiomises ot a leMiicled 
biid''et or unusual demands oi an (Mil of-l he ordiiiar\ 
merchandising policy. !')in the most initicaie and in- 
vohed storelront piolileni can casilv lie met lodav by 
iJie lisc- ol modern inalerials and advanced melhods 
ol building design. 

0,\ |- ol ihe iiewrsi de\ etopmenis in model ii iinT- 
ihandisin'' is i ec(>''nilioii ul the mght-time dis- 
pta\ \aliie of luminous sloielioiits. The .id\eiiisiug 
eft'ec liveness of the v^'liole lacade ol aii\ shop lan he 
( apiiali/ed bv niakiir' it stand out, altei bonis, 
through use o! rich and '^Iowmt.^ c olrns soltK oi biil- 
liantlv illuminated. I has. die np-iodaie sioielioiiL, 
pioperiv c oust iiH ted ^vidj m'idei ii pi odut ts. (an l»e 
designed nol onl\ hti da\-lime al ii -ic 1 1 \ eiiess, Iml lor 
the niglit-tinie attention value cjI hiininous c(doi as 
well. In this new possibihtv lies great fjppoituiui\ lor 
retail merchant s and loi the designer who sei \ es r hem. 

lUivers are attrac tefi bv cieaii-cui hjims.nid smoodi 
suifacc-s. are stimulated bv color and li^lii. lic-iause 
ol this, merchants are reccjgni/ing moie and mote die 
sales values that lie in the iiua'.;in.ii ive use ol nl.iss, 
metal and glcjwing coloilul light. 

Today, all these elenients aie impoiiant paits (jt 
the desiiiuer's building vocabulaiv. Stotefront menil 
ot extriified aluminum or bron/e. liglitweighl but 
toU'>h <nid stroiii^, can meet the spec iiicatic;ns c>| anv 
j>lan. field bv it sa[el\ and permanentlv is glass — 
gla.ss tliat can be almost endlessly ccjlorful; thai is 
transparent, translucent or opatpie. plain or textnied, 
resistant to heat and lold. tempeied to unbelievable 
strengths, iiecause these are now so easilv available, 
the nnracle ot luniinous surfaces c an he acxoinplished. 
C^olor and light can be made to '^low. sparkle or bla/e 
at the will of the designer, giving new Ure ot inteiest 
to an) type of market place. 



rTTTTr 



fca/e W-I'O 



Eye level 

^ ISO rrom 
windovy 



TO 
> 










A SIGHT LINES - Ground I Mezzanine Windows 




12 to 15 



^ 






Eve \ 
level ^ 






Sidewalk 






Accesf 
door. 



iQ' Ophmum 
^-,y viewing 
■■-.'■-'., pl3ne_ 



v3. minimum 



OpMmum ec"?)^ J-'^- 
viewing ^''*^"' 
plane 





Fin ceiling 



Acce?5 
door 



o 

o 

CO 



1 



Fm Basement floor 



^ 



B 



- SIGHT LINES - Ground I Basemenr Windows 



PR 



NC 



PLES 




SHOW \VINDOA\^S o[ any si/x or type lia\c dh- 
l?la\ as riteiv chief reason for existence. There- 
lore, principles of sho^v windoAV design can he stand- 
ardized in relation to the ease with which people can 
view the wind()\v's contents. This involves sight lines 
to determine the most practical size of the glass area. 

SIGHT LINES are normally taken from an avera,-;e 
eye position ">' — .V ahove ihc side^valk and 1'— 3" 
from the windcnv face for di.si:)lay areas on the firsl 
Hoor and those in a basement. Sec diagrams A and li 
al left. An eye position about 25' from the u-indow" 
face \\'ill establish practical limits for mezzanine or 
second floor shoAV Avindo^vs as indi(ated in sketch A. 

In all cases projection of sight lines shordd perniil 
concealment oi lighting fixtm-es ahove and beloAv 
display areas and also at sIiotv ^vindo\v jambs when 
displays lecpilre lighting from one or both sides. 

A comfortable vieiving angle is 30° on each side 
of the perpendicular in both horizontal and vertical 
planes. ^Vlthin this fiO' cone, the eye sees quickly 
and Avithout any a])preciable physical effort of focns- 
iii" P»ut. because the eye can shift and accommodate 
so <pncklv to a neiv focus, it is practical to pkui .^how 
^viiidoAvs which encompass lioi'i/ontally t^v() or more 



>'iewing angle areas 



THE OPTIMUM VIEWING PLANE is -the limit 
of the vie-\\'ing angle determined by the physical 
enclosure of a display area. It indicates the best 
flisplav location, and thus largelv influences location 
of a disp]a^ area backgrountl. See diagram C below. 



Fixture? wirh louvered reflectors may projeci' into viewing an^le 

Mm practical clearance 
for concealed lighMng 



Maximum pracfical 
head location . 



Minimum pracHcal 
head locaMon 





CorKeaied iignr^,,--' : 

-' ; Op|-imum viewing planes \ 

\ for locating object dis- \ 

\ play Overall depth of i 

i effechve display area j 

i depends on size of I 

i object's and type of i 
; background 




'v ■ 



"Sidewalk line 



Fin Kt". floor-^^^-^ 




C- OPTIMUM VIEWING PLANES 



PHI ONE 
PLANNINfi 



I. 0, F. MANOU OF MODERN S 1 R E F R N I S 



GOOD 



SHOW 




NOOW 



OES 



GN 



r\I\n\SK)\ (l;ir;i In iIh- iaUU- he- 
*-^ luv wciT di'\t'luj)rd ln>iu applitn- 
lion of ihcse planning prinriplc^. Thcv 
gi\c a\ tMuoc rungL' (if critical dimensions 
for v;ointi:i types of cominonly ii^Ltl 
sho^v windows, but it sl^ould be borne 
io niimi that thev are to be ief>'artUHi 
prinurilv as a g.uidc lo good show win- 
d<nv design and not as inflexible stand- 



ards. SiniihirK. the ligluin<; wattagcs in 
llli^ table siionld be looked upon as 
ouides and not as rigid criteria. Re<piire* 
nuMUs will vary with the general cliai- 
acter of adjacent cstahlisJunents and 
with the specific nature of the merchan- 
dise displiued, 

^^how window lij;htiiig wattages listed 
should be niultiplkd bv rhe following 



factors based upon average^ brightness of 
i\nic;d comnuitial areas; 
^^ain shopping cenLcr,^ in cities. 
SftorKlarv sliop]ung centers cities 

or main centers towns 

Neighborhood stores small towns 

or industrial districts 



1.0 



75 



M) 



lli'illiantlv lighted 



areas, as 
"White Wav" districts 2 to 2.5 



STORE FRONTS - AVERAGE DIMENSIONS (Figures indicate range oF sizes in common use ) 




STORE 


BULK- 
MEAD 
HT. 


GLASS 
HT. 


WIN- 
DOW 
DEPTH 


LIGHTING 
in WaHs per Lin.FL 
Oulletil2"-15''fl.c 

(SEE TEXT) 


W NDOW BACKS 


STORE 


BULK- 
HEAD 
HT. 


GLASS 
HT. 


WIN- 
DOW 
DEPTH 


LIGHTING 

m WaHs per Lln.Ft- 

Ouiletil2"l5"a.c. 
(SEE TEXT) 


W NDOW BACKS 




Art 


2'-2" 


3'G" 

5'-0" 


3'-0" 

4'-0" 


100 
200 


Neutra coor, suit- 
able for tacVing; no 
portion of window 
more than 3'- 6" 
from access door 


Furrier 


r-8"' 

2'-4" 


6'-0" 

8'-0" 


3'-0" 
6'-0" 


200 

Spotlights and/of 

footlights, lenses 

necessary Co 

protect Furs 


Semi-c osed or 
cosed^ rich wood 
preFerred 




Auto 


0" 
12" 

Access 


8'-0" 
lO'-O" 

Window 


6'-0" 

8'-0" 


300 
500 

Special lighcing 

efFects; ceiling 

lighu louv^J'ed 

recessed spotlights 


None 


Grocery 
Li(|uor 


l'-8" 
2''6" 


5'-0" 
7'-0" 


2'-0" 
5'-0" 


150 


Open or ow rail - 
clear view into store 




Haberdasher 

Varied stock 


1^6" 
2'-2" 


6'-0" 
7'-0" 


3'-0" 
4'-G" 


200 


Cosed 






Haberdasher 

Liraited stock 


2'-6" 
2"'8"' 


5'-0" 
6'-0" 


2'-6" 
3'-0" 


150 


Cosed 




Bakery 
CanJy 


2^-0" 

2'-5" 


5'-0" 
6'-0" 


2'-0" 
3' -6" 


ISO 


Glass, wood. Screen- 
ed vent ducts to Outer 
air; assume size of lOO 
sq- in, per 1 OOO watts 




Hardware 

House Furnishings 


r-6" 

2^6" 

perhaps 
v-3fying 

levels 


6'-0" 
lO'-O" 


4'-0" 
6'-0" 


200 

Additional spot- 
lights and outlets 
for inechflnicol 
■contrivances 


Cosed 




Books 
Tobacco 


2'-4" 
3'-2" 


4'-0" 
6'-0" 


2'-0" 
3'- 6" 


100 


Cosed, wood; or 
partia y open possi- 
bly with she ving 
for displays 




Hals 

Men's 


2'-0" 
2'- 4" 


5'-0" 
8'-0" 


3'-6" 
4'-6" 


200 


Cosed - 

J access door 




Clothing 
Men's 


I'lO" 


6' -6" 
8'-0" 

U sq. ft. 

'torso 
tiO" to 


4'-0" 
6'-0" 

areA pdr 

Form; 
50'' high 


200 

AdcJitional 


Cosed, I access 
door per window; 
partitions or screens 

often dwide window 
into U' to 6' units 




Hats 

Women's 
Mil inery 


2'- 2" 
2'-8" 

1 tq, ft 


5'-0" 
7'-0" 

ares by 15 


3'-0" 
5'-0" 

- to 20" 


2O0 


C osed 




Clothing 

Women's 


r-3" 

"Style 
stages" 
10" to la" 


7'-0" 
9'-0" 

All 

J* sq. ft 

per 


4''0" 
6'- 6" 

by 70" 

1 


200 

Additional 

spotlights and 

base outlets 


Cosed, 1 access 
door per window; 
usua y ight hard 
woods 


n»jghc per hat 




Jewelry 

Inexpensive 


2'-8" 
3'-0" 


4'- 5" 
6'-0" 


2'-5" 
3'-6" 


150 


Cosed, removab e, 
provide access passage 




Jewelry 

High quality 


3' -2" 
3'-6" 


3'- 0" 


I'-O" 
2'-6" 


100 

"Daylight' lenses 
prefefred 


Cosed, removable, 
provide access passage 




Dairies 
Delicatessen 


r-8" 
r-4" 


5'-0" 
7'-0" 


2' -6" 
4'-0" 


150 


Cosed or open; 
access doors I'-b" 
by 4'-0"to 2^-0" 
by 5'-o", max- 
reach 3' -6' . Vent 
un ess refrigerated; 
see "Bakery" 


Leathergoods 
Luggage 


I'-6" 
2'-0" 


7'-6" 


6'-0" 
8'-0" 


200 


C osed, provide 

she ves i5"to 2i;"apart 

for luggage disp ays 




Optical 


3'-0" 
3'-6" 


4'-0" 
5'-0" 


2'-0" 
3'-0" 


150 


Genera y c osed; 
whoe window 
free in design 




Drug 


2'-0" 
2'-&" 


6'-0" 
8'-0" 


2'-0" 
3'-0" 


200 


Partia y c osed - 
openings to view 

interior; provide 
access passage 


1 




Radios 
Refrigerators 
Sporting Goods 


l'-6" 
2'-G" 


6'-0" 
8'-0" 


3'-0" 
6'-0" 


200 


Open or c ose< 




Florist 
General 


r ■ 0" 

pioof 
fbof 


6'-0" 
8'-0" 


3'-0" 
6'-0" 


150 


Open - additional 
g ass and meta 
she virsg- 
Ventiated 


Shoes 
Men's 


MO" 
2'-2" 


6'-0" 
7'-fl" 

t. per pa 


2'-0" 
4'-0" 

r shoes 


50 


C osec 




Shoes 

Women's ; or 
Men's and Women 


2'-0" 

2'-4" 


5'-0" 
6'-0" 

ft, per pa 


3'-0" 
4' -5" 

f shoes 


150 


C osed 




Florist 
Hole, 
Cot r owers 


3'-0" 


4'-0" 
5'0" 


3'-0" 
4'-0" 


100 


C osed - additiona 
g ass and m.eta 
she ving. Vent 
un ess refrigerated 




Service 
Barber 

Beauty 

C earner and Dyer 

Laundry 

Ja\ or 


l'-6" 
2'-0" 


6'-6" 
8'-0*' 


r-6" 

5'-0" 


200 


Prefefab y open; 
interior oppe^rance 
important 




Furniture 


9" 

r-2" 


9'-0" 
11''0" 

RoOfT 

9"x|- 
wair 


8'-0" 
12-0" 


250 
300 

Additional base. 
Floor and wall 

outlets and 
spotLgKts 


C o^ed; access 

doors, i^-o" K 6'-8" 


■ 



I. 0. F. MANUAL OP MODERN STOREFRONIS 



PARI ONE 
PLANNING 



TTrrTwrrr 











DISPl.A\'S of coinp;irati\elv small objects wind) 
live Ix'St seen rehitixelv close to the eye, gain iti 
attention \alue ^^'hen the floor of the window (bulk- 
head height) is hi ought up bom 18" to as uiucli as 
S1/2' al)o\-e the side^valk grade. Practically any type 
of object which the buyer would normally examine 
b\ hoJdiii" in his hand tails into this class of small 
objects. Included are food products, books, cut 
flowers, haberdasheries (other than stiits) , hardware. 
je^\"eirY, liquor bottles, millinery, shoes and other 
merchandise of similar size and cliaracter. 

Reconnncnded dimensions tor bulkhead height, 
glass height, u-indow depth, tor stores in this category 
are given on page 9. Judgment nuist be exercised in 
the appli( ation ot tiiese average dimensions. ho^\e\er, 
because local habits and trade customs, as -^^'el! as the 
quality ot the goods displayed, may recitiire larger 
window areas than are indicated. In general, high- 
grade shops \^'hi<h seek to "institutionalize" their 
character choose to display onh' a fe^v items at a 
time. Shcnv -^vindows are often small in size, but the 
general facade ot the store is comparatively more 
elaborate. 

Stores selling less expensive goods may require the 
largest practical windows it tlieir policy ot "mass 
selling" recpiires bidk shovying of man)' items within 
a single display area. 

In general, small stc-)res require unu-sual ingenuity 
in plannmg. construction and \n the disposition of 
male rials. "The iacade nuist make up in attention- 
value what it lacks in size to compete sticcessfiilly 
with its neighbors in attracting buvers. 

For this reason, plans of small storefronts show 
wide variety. A number of plan suggestions that have 

Below at the left are shown lo«ica] an-angenicnts for a small store 
frontage recjLiIriiig [-wo cntrarues. n]'spla\ areas are inereascd 
if t\|H-s :J and 4 are practical. At tile right are six plan sug- 
gestions for iiarro-^v storelronts. Choice ol deep or shallow 
windows and ^e.stibides depends on depth of store builcHng 
and o^vner's display requirements. 



proved unusually successftil are shown Ijelow as well 
as lour methods of solving the problem of planning 
for a btiilding entrance within tlie same facade. 

Diagrams and tabular data relating to vestibule 
dimensions indicate average standards ot good prac- 
tice in tour general types of small stores. In every 
case adjustments can be made depending upon the 
location ot the store, the character of the facade and 
the physical recpiirements of display as determined 
by the merchandising policies of the owner. 



VESTIBULE 



DIMENSIONS 



1: to 15 



7.\ 



20 lo 



3-«-£ 



TYPE -A 



TYPE - B 



12 to 15 




SO? 



— b 



T 



a— ^ 



(zJZ^i£ 



TYPES - C e. D 



i>oiiJ>le 



Heighr 



Door 
Size 



TYPE 
A 



5'-0"ro6'-0" 



3-8"tod-0- 



7-4."ro8'-6" 



3'-0\7^0' 



TYPE 
B 



6'-07o 8"-0" 



For I Di: 3'-8-.4'-0" 
For2DTs5'-6"x6'-6" 



7"-0'To lO'-O" 



9'-07olO'-6" 



Dr-3'-0-x7^0" 
2Drs.-2-6". 7^0; 
3-O\7-O'"0r7-6" 



TYPES C £. D 



^in9i£ 



PCU^i£ 



6'-O''0 8'-O' 



3'8'lo4.-0" 



7-6" lo 8'-6" 



3-0'x7-0" 



7-070 q-0 



6- 6- ro 8- 6' 



7'-67o20'-0" 



q'-0"roiO'-6' 



2Drs.-2'-6"x7-0 
3'OY7-0'or7'-6' 




"VW 



'''■-' - -' yrz 



/^''^- 



'? . 




TTF 






^ 




I 




1 








J 






■ 1 


- ' '.' \ 



















^?^^ 


mm 


'/. 


1 




m4 


f 




' 




I 



mi 




WITH DEEP WINDOWS 





\0 











■ 


M 


t 




' 


J 









■^Z^'"" 


H 







WITH SHALLOW WINDOWS 




PHI ONE 
PLANNING 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF 



ODER 



SIOREFROnS 




PLANNING WITH FOR 

WIILN [hv ciispla\ area of a show 
\viiK!o\\' is pm-jiosflv restricted by 
liii^h Ijiilkiicads u> biiiig ol)jc-tis close to 
ihc eve, the Lrcaimeiit oC the whole store 
i'aaitle must be given distinctive character 
10 attract the auciuion lIuu a larger 
cli.splay might olhenvise secure. Facades 
oi small stores can approprtately be 
btartiiiigl} unustial pn>\ nWd iIku the 
owner's requirements ior display are 
iull\ satisfied. The architect can do 
iiuieh to create an oul.^laiKliiij^ plan. He 
can jnstifiably use tonibiiiations o£ 



) 




GUT 




D COLOR 



stKJni; color in his design: and witli 
thcni l],^iu can be euiploxed to accciiL 
the design duriim ihe chi\ or lo nK<kc 
the ('iitire Incade ;^lo\v A\ith ajm[x-llini; 
radiMMce at nighu Today's motU-rn 
niaicrlals — extruded nieial and -.iront^. 
colorlnl -iUub prinhicEs — J^i^L■ the AvttU'St 
latitude lo the architects construe tive 
inhi;4iiKitit>n. They can be adapted to 
an endless number of storehoni desij^ns 
ami iii\e to borli iuxlntect and o^vner a 
una IK loi phuiniiii; waili new l(jrnib, 
glowing colui" and brilliant light. 



Vi troll te 



Metal 
letters 




Vitrolux 



Vitrolite _J 



12 




Access panels 



Removable 
Vifrolux panels 



SandBl.Virrolife 




^tiow window 



Vifrolux 



L, 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STOREFROnS 



PAH ONE 
PLANNING 





Virrolire 
Vifrolux 




12" 



Vilrolil-e I 



Vitrolux 



Metat leffer^ 



Vifrolif-e 




Removable Vifrolux paneK 




nu ONE 
PLANNING 



"Acce« 
paneK 



o 




L[I THE FRONI REFLECT THE SERVICE 



|\ I WCilUrK scr\ ices t;HiiK)L be sold 
' in tn (liii:n"\ sixnchum (lisphtvs. Cus- 
loincrs am not cstiniiUr tlic skill of a 
hjirclrrsscr tn h^rber. liu; L-iliticni scrv- 
'](v f>r ;\ brokerage house or the excel- 
Iriitt^ ol J rcstauniiu's Wxh] bv s.irriplcs 
tlispl;iyccl in a window. But ihey can 
tell a fJ^'cat deal about the slandinf^ and 
C[n:iliiv of a service esublisbnu-ni b\ ibe 
storelroni itscll. 11 ilu* farade is iip- 
uwliitc. ii n-dccts tbe success ol ih(^ en- 
lire rsi.iblislnneni. If il is obviously 



liigli in the cjualiu ol iis niaieriiil and 
design, a storefront suj^gcsts that the 
proprietor ap])rec iau'^ quaUly in serv- 
ice. Attractive original itv draws cus- 
tomers who seek both eKcelh-me and 
indi\ iiluaiit\ in the service they are 
buying. Skill I nl plann ing and the use 
of colorful ,t;lass wiih extrntied uu'Cal 
enaljle ihe store owner to express in the 
facade of his shop the vcrv feaiures his 
rusioniers desire and (hns draw Inivers 
oJ wbatc\cr services he may offcn 



L. 0, F. MANUAL OF MODERN S 1 R E F R N I S 



SIORES 



THAI 



SELL 



SERVICES 



WIIKN a store sells a service rather than ooods 
w hit h can l)e appraised \ isuallv. it increases the 
nierchaiidisiuLi task ^vhich the store I'ront must acconr- 
plish hv itself. In this group fall restaurants, bars, 
teiiroonis: barber and hairdrcssiug establislnncnts, 
custom tailors, cleaners and dvers and laundries; 
repair shops, ticket oflices and such store-type ofhce 
space as is customarily used by realtors, insurance 
brokers, branch banks and the like. 

In all instances it is the store facade rather tlian the 
show window display that expresses the character and 
fjualitv of the establishment. Three types of window 
treatment are open to choice. 

The lirst makes the storefront a "picture ^^Mndo^\^" 
which re\eals activities \\ithin the store itself. This 
rreainicnt calls for i;ood jHuniiiiarion of the interior, 
and. of course, an interior treatment that makes the 
customer want to enter. Si/e ol the niudo\v is im- 
material, being gcnerned ^s-holly by sight lines which 
\arv with the vie^^dng point from which the interior 
wili be most conunonly ol)scr\cd. A windo^v \vith a 
relati\e!\ hi"h bulkhead and low \alance ■i\ill sufhce 
to show the interior to persons passing on the .sidewalk. 

Ill a second tvpe the window is subordinated as a 
mere pattern in the facade. Often the u'indow mav 
be of unusual shape and so related to the entrance 
itself that the sho[5per is almost comj^elled to enter. 

A third type mav combine these functions or e\ en 
make use of attention-getting displays more or less 
related to die kind of service offered ^vithin. In gen- 
eral, however, reliance must be placed upon the im- 
pression created by the entire facade rather tlian that 
formed bv objects displayed or \isible through tlie 
window. A particularly effecti\'e ser\'ice storefront is 
that Avhich contains no windo^v at all. or. at most, a 
windo-^\' area glazed with opaque, colored or patterned 
glass. Here the designer can gi\e full play to his 
ima'dnation. trsing form, color, lighting effects and 
the brilliant smoothness of extruded metal and mod- 
ern glass products to achie\'e indi\ idualit\ and high 
distin(tion. tu'o qualities -w'hich ahvays appeal to the 
liest trade in any town. 



I 



/" 



yitroUa 



H 








M^M 



>■ 



■Ultzo. 




.Average dinicnsions of winclo^vs suitable lor stores 
ami sh(^p^ diat sell ser\i(es are gi\en in the table on 
page !1. Reconnnended dimensions for \estil)ules and 
entrances leading to such ser\ i<c stores are given in 
the table mi page 10. Normally, \\-indows of service 
stores can be very shallow and their doors can be as 
close to the street line as hxal l)ULlding regulations 
pernni. thus increasing the effective floor area of the 

shop within. 

The sketches below suggest the \artuany limitless 

desi<m ix)ssibilitics of '"serv-ice sforelroius." An at- 
tracti\c treatment of the whole facade is usually 
more important than dis]-)la\ space. Some unicjue 
device such as that sho^vn in the sboe-rejiair shop- 
front illustrated i.S often desirable. Mere the poten- 
tial customer's o\vn footwear is reflected in the bulk- 
head mirror lor comparison with shoes in the window. 




vuio^di 



(helves 



Uiiror^^ 



mroiu^ ^y Q PA N N 



' RgRUTIE 



>^^^ 4-rULTUHF 




SECTION A 



A- 



1 



VitroliU 
Vitrolux. 




1^ 





DOE & DOE. BROKERS 




INC. 



( 



\ 9lat€ f^s 



SECTION A 



A-- 




VUroltU _ 



_ 



doon 



JUlal 



M A 



VUroUix . 



X : A I M '/ 




SECTION A 



SECTION A 




I. 0. F. MANUAL OF 



DERN SIOREFRONIS 



PUT ONE 
PLANNING 




[A.i!.i,k ■'.. 




Removable 
Vilrolux 
panels -..- 



RemovaDle 

mefal 

let"fers 




Cantilever 
fru5? framing 

( 



O 



o 



Removable Vifrolux paneK 



/ 



^caLe 



12" 



o 



1:2 




PARI ONE 
PLACING 



COMPELLING AIIENIION WITH LIGHI 



r^OR sh<_vr ;itlciui()ii \:ihu', no s1ki|)c. 
' I on 11 or nKiUTi:il kaw i nnipciL^ witli 
liylu, A ljri!li;nul\ ii<^"luctl wiiulow di^s- 
j>Ui\ sicjis the sIkuv iroin iis ttinitnur 
( onijjcM hfjr next door. Tht- \\'t^ll-iiu;liT<'cl 
niitujufr or (Miinintc cir;i\\> ihr crnwd 
h'om the obscure doorwa\ nciirhv. The 
luminous stoi'cCroui in whic h ilu- wliolt^ 
hicidr is ukkIc U) ^^Iow in rich ioloj- :ind 
jnHTcsUu^ p<UU"] It will t ;iuli ilic cvc 
blocks \\\<'A\. In lin'iiL — used in an\ of 
liicsu w;i\s ^ — ilic owner an<l ^lotel^o^ll 
d<'Nigncr \\\\\ii \\\\ indis]:)cns;ible aid. 



Cda>*s \s ilu' nialeriitl wliich above a 
others is iuLinuurlv associated witli H*»bi 
lib use in sh(>\\ i\ indows and di\j)la\ 
cases i,s Lradiiional. Todav, a ereai \ a- 
r\v\\ of j^iass prinhjcis makes it possible 
U> eniplo\ the lonipclUn;^ power ol li^lu 
thnnio'h glass over ilie entire la cade. 
not Kn\\\ to sh<n\ the merchant's ^vares 
10 besl ;ul\aniai;e. bm U) iLJenlifv his 
esutblislnnent unnnsi;ikalslv. Glass sur- 
faces ol" \\vf}\ hisiei lield in gh^anuni; 
metal lorni a ?>trucUne of compel lino 
atnaction axmA ciubnino- value, 



L 0. F. MAHAL OF MODFRN SIORFFRONTS 



LARGE 



STORES 



AND 



MARKETS 



SI ORKS Willi cMciuictl .sux'ct liouuigcs i)ciiuiuiui> 
ilu' iisf <>l se\fr;il units ot show windows, vctjuiit' 
(laite (lifferent facade treatment Ivom that logital lor 
small Mores and service sliops. Iiuo this chrss lail 
most department stores, large drug and grocery stores. 
( loihiui' and drvi^oods estahiishmcnts. automobile 
salesrooms, tiirniture stores and other m;uas where 
ih<' \arietv of the products For sale or the size ot the 
imits tieniamls c\teusi\e Hoor space in disj:»!a) .neas. 
Fntriuices to such establishments usiiall)' require 
broad vestibules and multiple doors to handle tvartic 
easily. Also the entire entrance area generally needs 
a treatment that creates a po^\-erbil invitation. A 
deep, brilliantl) lighted \estihulc hanked by small 
display windows, a large marquee with a dominant 
sign or broad areas ot color are elements ^vliich mav 
be \ariously adapted to serve this purpose. \\'hcu 
structural conditions or building regulations prevent 
use of projecting featin^es or deep vestibules, the 
bu'ade itself requires a more compelling design treat- 
ment to A\'hich color and the smooth surfaces of glass 

and metal products tan contribute niucli. 

In all large stores of whatever type, displav win- 
dows are the most important elements ot the entire 
Ntorefroni area. In general, dis])la^ areas nmsi be 
large and usuallv deep, particularly for stores selling 
such things as furnitme or automohiles. Also thev 
must generally be so ])lanned that they are easily 
adapted to frequent changes of disptavs. This holds 
with special force in display areas of department 
stores which commonlv sbo^r a Avide \'arietv of u,<)f)ds 
in displays that are changed often and vary widely 
with seasonal merchandising acti\ ities. 

Because displav managers strive for "rontinuitv of 
effect" when dressing a group of larue \\dndows. as 
contintions a glass area as possible is desirable. The 
position of colnmns between units or groups of win- 



(U)ws olLcn deierMuues the feasibility of such displays. 
If colunms are set in^hind the ghiss Hue ai least 2 or 3 
Feet, displays may continue without apparent nuer- 
ruption. Cohinms breaking the glass line or those 
wliich are set back only a few inches from the sm lace 
of the glass make it dillicult to produce a successlul 
display contiuuin . 

Set-ijacl; colinnns are almost mandat(jry in stitic- 
tmcs housing large grocery stores or drug stoies. 
And in manv food markets, wheie windows are mov- 
a!)le to permit open-air selling, set-back tohnnns 
should be prcnided. 

AN im]X)rtant consideiaiion in the large store, 
I'rom the point n{ \ie\\- both ot design and of 
merchandising, is unity of effect and compening 
power. Unlike tlie small store which usually contains 
one unit of displav on w'hich it wishes to locus 
attention- the lar^e store Itas a multiplicity ot units, 
some ol ^vhich may be treated as continuous displav, 
others with brilliant contrast. An exantple ol this 
may be adjacent department store displavs ol winter 
sports clothes set against a sno\\-y landscape and south- 
ern sports clothes against a backgroinid of southern 
landscape. In the design of the entire striuture and 
its skillful use of torm. light and color will be lound 
the means for uniiving these multiple iniits ol dis- 
plav. whether continuous or contrasting, into the 
integrated iniit ol the large store. 

In ttie majority ol cases, the large storefront 
re(]uires large disphn- -windoAVS A\-ith lo^v bulkheads, 
fairly high glass areas and considerable depth. I he 
lighting ec[uipment must be planned tor utmost 
flexibility, tor such windows must be capaf^le of a 
wide variety of dressing treatments. In a sense, these 
w'inclow's :irc tlicatri(^al sta*>e5 in -^vlilch l>;ickdn")ps, 
(nrni^liiiv^s ixwd li^luini^ emphasis are \'ari(:'(l ai will. 



Cohnnii luLaliejiis go\ern the ch:ir:uici 
of uiiulow dicsbiuj; ia coiuiiiiKnis win- 
tlo^vs forming the front of a hirj^c stf>n\ 
H u^Uunnh break the glasj> line or jre 
posilioiied inimcdiatelv behind the j^lass, 
tliey retjuiif in(li\ idniil trcalinent of :ul- 
jateni disphivs. When the coUiinns .ire 
set well behind ihf ghiss ;uul the store- 
front is carried cjn c;nuile\ er construe- 
tion, bc\eral adjuceiu windows can Ijc 
dressed as a single unit by carrying the 
nnilorm treaunciu in frc)nt of ihe sup- 
ports. 1 he impression of displa\ con- 
linnity is enhanced by facing the col- 
nnuis with mirror. 



\ p- 



aOI^E FRONT i.W> OFFSET COLUMNS 



^pctrai dKpTav ^fC3^- 



I'O rrfn 






L 



IznuiJ 




Umnlcrruplcd display area 




UORE F^ONT ujU/i FLUSH COLUMNS 

Inowidual ditpJav 3^^< . ^p«ia! d^piav area; 



/y: 



m 




L. 0. F. MAfjyU OF 



ODERN SIOREFROUS 




PHI OH 
PLANNING 




s 



G 



N 



S 



SILHOUETTE bVf^ns arc eiicciive up 
lo about one tiiousaiid iccL. when 
width (>l d kticr sLiokc is 15% ol letter 
hvAgUi. (W/H = 13). Very liiin IcUcr^ 
(under 5%) or very thick (over 25%) 
give poor visibility. To jind frlifrr 
heights for ready recognition: Dcttnuine 
MCI tnininoub area (lighted hackj^rouiid 
le.s.s area nl letters). On Chan I read 
hojii top, through curve ol desired 
hri<;hlnesN to distana- factor, leit. Divide 
desired maxinuun le^ibilit\ distance in 
leeE bv lacioi. A]jpl\ resuU to ::.cale ol 
iTiiixJnnun distance tor read\ reeoy^ni- 
tion on Chart II. Read lelt to ]>redeier- 
niiiied letter prcjporiion (WVH := 7r J 
llien down to find rnininnini |nactica] 
lellei' hei^ii^- l'<'i height ^vith j>Teai.er 
lej^il)iliL\ gi^'ii^K ■'<lesirabl.e ]nd)licity 
\akie^' under similar eoiicHiions. divide 
i-esiilt by (K7(l. Tn jtruf niasitninn rli.s- 
h/urr for rrarly n^roij^jnl ion . knowing de- 
sired brightness, letter iieif^lu and pro- 
poiiioii: re\'erse |jr*Jt edure, bej^i nn in g 
with height, ['(jr distance ot "desirable 
pnblicitv \'aKie" multiply residt \>) 0.7(1, 

ENCLOSED lamp sij^n-^ uia) var) wideh 
in ^i/e and character dependiuf^ u):)on the 
tianslucenl materials eniplc)\ed ioi the 
letters anti the de]3th ol the lamp h(jus- 
iu^. For lettei dimensions sec lalde 1. 
I .ain]> spat in^ is based on fi" t enters, 
h'om 1" to H" In^hind opal t^lass letters. 
Read wattages lor clear or inside Irosted 
lamps ironi 1 able 1 L l-(3i iiureased 
\vatiai^es lor tolored lamps or color 
screens see labie IIL 

EX POSED lamp signs arc rarely satis- 
lai t()i'\ (*n sioreiVon ts exccjjt when f^as- 
eoMs ^a|K*r tuhtdar lamps ol compara- 
ti\elv low' i>ri^iuness replace ordinar\ 
lamps. For design ol such si^u^ consult 
a spetialisL 







1.1 - 



CHART I - EFFECT OF BRIGHTNESS ON LEGIBILITY DISTANCE 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



60 



70 



NET LUMINOUS AREA SQ. FEET ^ ( UNOBSCUREO AREA) 









,b^'^^.-+ 









80 






90 






CHART II . LETTER HEIGHT AND 
RECOGNITION DISTANCE 






ENCLOSED lamj) signs such ns that 
bclo\\* can be designee! Irniii data 
gi\cn in uibics based on l;nn|j ^|>;lc- 
ing-s shown in ihc diagram Ijelow. 
For data on design ol luminous ele- 
mcius. see pages 52 and 53. 



SILHOUETTE signs shown above have 
batki^iotuici brij^hiness cxijrcssed in foot- 
Jambtrts in Chart L Use 10U/:^U() Ft.-Lani- 
ben> ill lii<;]i bri^huicss districts. (Sec Istcol. 
'Lable II. Items 1, 2 and 3). Use 50/150 
Et.-Lainberts in low brightness districts. 




^--': ■■■- :-fl 



.mil. 



— 6" 




" '''^ 



1 
I 



I 

i 



I 



i 



( 



TABLE 1 - VISIBILITY - DIMENSION RELATIONS 
FOR ENCLOSED LAMP SIGNS 


TABLE II - LAMP WATTS FOR ENCLOSED LAMP SIGNS 

Ba»ed on Uniform Spacing o( 6 inc^e^ on centers 


EfFect;^e 


Maitimum 
Viewing 
Distance 


Letter 

Height 


Letter 
Width 


Letter 
Stroke 


Space 

Between 
Lctteri 


BRIGHTNESS FACTOR 


Greatest Viewing Distance in Feet 


50 


75 


100 


150 


200 


300 


400 


5Q0 


200' 
300" 
400' 
500' 
750' 


600' 

800' 

1000' 

1500' 


10" 

14" 

19" 

2' 

3' 


5" 
S" 
U" 
14" 
27" 


2vr 

r 

4" 
5" 


4" 

5'/j- 
I'2S' 


1, Brightest (Time:^ S<i. 
New Yoft) 


40 


40 


50 


50 


50 


60-75* 


75* 


75* 


2. Other Large City 
Squur>££ 


25 


25 


40 


40 


40 


50 


50 


60 


3. Bright 


25 


25 


25 


40 


40 


40 


40 


50 


^ouares 


15-25 


25 


25 


25 


25 


40 


40 


40 


TABLE III - EFFECT OF COLOR ON WATTAGE 

(Equivaler>l advertising va ue, not brightness) 


5. Dim 


15 


15 


25 


25 


25 


25 


40 


40 


6. [ Brigtifc 


15 


15 


15 


25 


25 


25 


25 


40 


NorfT^al ■ Whit*'' 
or lnsid€ Frosted 


10 


15 


25 


40 


60 


100* 


BuEiness J lj j. 


15 


15 


15 


15-25 


25 


25 


25 


25-40 


6. Dim 


15 


5 


15 


15 


25 


25 


25 


25 


DayMght Blue 

Yellow 

Arnber-O'onge 

Gree-n 

Red 

BIm6 


15 

10 
10 

25 
25 
50 


15 
10 

10 
25 
25 
50 


25 
25 
25 

50 
50 

50 


50 
50 

50 
50 
60 
60 


60 
60 

60 

100* 
100 
150 


100 
100 
00 
150 
150 
200 


9. Small Cities an< 
Large Towns 


10 


15 


15 


15 


15 


25 


25 


25 


10. Darlt Factory Districts, 
etc- 


10 


10-15 


15 


15 


15 


25 


25 


25 


^ Prererably use not o> 
All valueSi in this tab 


er 60 watt lamps and space c oter then 6 incties c 

loV 

e computed from thp formula: L ttmn Wflttt 


>n centers 






'la.x. View. 
Sfjghtness 


Ing Dlttan 
Fattof 


«, ft. 


4^ lOO'Wdtt amps or larger require color hoods. 










V 




PHI ONE 
PLANNING 



L. 0. F 



MANUAL OF MODFRN STOREFRONIS 



AREAS 



ABOVE 



THE 



WHEN a store tenant or ()a\ iier commands a 
fiu^ade area substantially laroer than that re- 
quired tor show Avindows and entrance, he has a 
vahiahle opportunity to increase tlie dominance ol 
his store by making the entire hicade function as an 
ad\ertising sign. 

This opportiniitv comes quite often. It occurs 
^vhen small stores with hioh ceilinus reciuire retati\elv 
small display windo^vs. In t^vo-stor\ strutiures the 
second Hoor can be treated as an integral part of the 
storefront when it is controlled b\ the tenant of the 
first floor space. And in one-storN stores, a false front 
may often be erected to create an impression of 
height, thus adding an air of dignity and importance 
that mi"lu ()ther\vise be lackino;. 

De\eiopnient ot such facade uveas into coinpelliiig 
adveitiscmcuts tor the store itselh ob\ iously rccjuires 
an adhcrenre to whatever character lias been de\el- 
oped in the storefront proper. liut throut^h rhe 
imagiuati\e use of \artous surhit in;^ material and 
througli employment of both hght and color, hacades 



These ;iiicl the phnto- 
i4i:iphit iliusirntions liKit 
lollou" shoes' cijjplic ;i uons 
t>l \ il^i(>u^ l,.C)J' . \:^h\.>iS 
pi'iul u c I s , b n I tl(J no c 
illiislrau- [hi- use ol Iix- 
LMKLiliu-,cieiiiiis(»l ulticii 
apped] i}\\ |>iii*t's ! [\ in ."if^. 
inclusix C-. r"lir(>ii<*h [Ih 
use (A l'',\tni(lidiie wiili 
l.X)A' . o;l!iss pindiic Ls, 
si(>r(^ f;u:i(lcs ni:i\ l)e 
luTuiiLtnis (>i o])cic|iLe iii 
nnv dfsirctl cninljin;i- 
tifMi . wllh :ill iiieni I- 
W(5ik h:lMnc>ln()u^ li oia 
sidew.ilk it) looT 




Tw'cj strikin;^ tacadc 
tre:a^u■m^, boili fjued 
with <(>1(hI uI \'itr()iitt;, 
T lu' facade sit>ii :u die 
left, ot the silhouette 
tvpe. aunicts ii3.siiuit at- 
tention in [his thivtime 
\ic\\" and at night is 
cnij^liasized b\ I ij^h ts 
concealed behind the 
stirfaccs of the letters 
thcmsehes. Ai the ritjht 
the sign, an integral part 
of the Vitrolue suitace> 
\s striking durin"- thedav 
nnd is made brilliant at 
night bv floocUigh ting 
concealed in the hood 
over the entrance and 
show windows. 



SIOREFRONI 



ab(>\e the storcliont !na\ be innde in pav attvactix'c 
di\ideiKls to the owner u'lio is wise eiioiijjh to make 
Kill use ot the potentialities at his runintancl. 

Ilhistratecl hclow are f\vo examples ol upper fata<les 
used as backgrounds tor identifying signs. There 
are an infmite number ot other possibilities when 
the surtacini; material is ot an opaque cliaraeter. I he 
entire aiea nia\' he la(cd with rolorlul \'ilr()lite or 
mirror and Hoodli^'hled bom a source below, eou- 
eealed in a marfjiiee or projecting; awniui^ box. 

Use of setoiul Hoor \\-indoAvs trimmed with X'iirolite 
oi (olored mirroi is another practical and ettettise 
metiiod of de\elopinj^ a hicade ,uea and at the same 
time enlai;^in^^ the disphi) capacity ot the store. 



ACiAJN, the sign itself may be lighted in sil- 
houette and the facade mereh outlined in rib- 
hons t)l ctKRcalcd hglu. And where [nac tical. a 
partitularK etfe(ti\e means hjr de\eh)[nno ;itiention 
\alne i.s to ereci the upper structinal members lai 
enou'di hack from the >how window hue lo punide 
lamp sp.ici' behind a huang ol colorful \'inolu\ sup- 
])oi-ted with I' xinidahle. 

With \'itrohix used in this manner, 1 ami nous 
color can I)C made lo dramatize the store al tn^^hl. 
In l-atrope buninous ta(ades ha\e bi'cn designed lo 
liold opatpic letters at night, aiaatiged .is a huge Mgii 
dial pro(daims the bargains ot the moment. 1>\ da\ 
the buninous .neas ap[x-ai as richb tolorUd op.ajiie 
glass with snuHjth, easib maintained sui laces. 

Indeed, wath light— controlled, ];)ei'haps. on vari- 
ous circints to pertnit changes in both coloi and 
intensit^■-^and glass jiroduct.s held in l-'\trndaliie, ihe 
lurhitcct and store owner connnand uuh!uile<l pos- 
sibilities ol dramatit design .md tonipelling >id\ei- 
tising. Their en!plo\nient is limited oni\ b\ the 
creative imagination o! the architect (u designer and 
the mcrchaudibing policies ol the merchant. 




1. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PUT ONE 
PLANNING 





i 
I 
I 



I 



I 
\ 
I 
\ 
I 



s 



Virrolite 

Metal 
leftert 

VifroIuK^ 

Mcfal . 

Vitroiux- 

Rcmovable, 
panel 



rm 




X 



fca/e 







Acce;^ paneK 



12 



Mirror 



ii I 



Plan of 
column at 
rear wall . 




FOR EVERY lYPE OF HOREFRONI 



/^XE fnctc)r coimiiou tn ;ill si.f>rfs and 
^^ llie uni\ crsal piul>it-'in ol all re- 
laal mcrch;ints is the necessity o£ keep- 
ing pace witli ctMnprtii ion. And ^iiice 
the storeiront creates the first impres- 
sion f>n passing traffic, it must be un- 
u^ui^llv attractive i[ it is to ctmipctc suc- 
cessiuih ;vit]i its neighbf)rs. It must pro- 
claim in dramatic terms ihat "here is 
an tip-io-tlate store, fresh stocks, progres- 
sive service, the kind of goods you want 
— come in and bii)\ In glass and gleam- 



ing metal — the inosL inodei n puiducls 
loi storelronts — property owner, tenant 
and architect alike ha\e ;jt hand mate- 
rials that are v\ erlastinylv fresh, clean 
and brilhan tl\ ne^v-ap])earing. Xliese, 
together wiili glowin;^ color and light, 
are design elements of vasi ittipoi lance 
to the storefront planner- Their endm- 
ing qna lilies, duir per]H'in.d \t*inhlul 
ness makes them adaptalde U) an\ inoch 
ern storelVotu design uuc] an tcoinnnical 
investment tor evcrj t)pe ol store* 




PARI ItfO 
EURUDALITE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 





EXT 





Metal sections of extruded aluminum or bronze with a 
modern appearance, durability, strength and simplicity 
of design that make them ideally suited to a wide variety 
of uses in the construction of any type of storefront 



EXTRUDALITE 
storelrout metal in- 
liides three types of selt- 
uppoitmg sash and a 
series of related nieinbei's 
so complete that it can 
be used tor constrLictiny 
entire storefronts of any size or design. In this list 
are members designed to secure such materials as 
Vitrolite or X^itrolux in connection \\'ith sash assem- 
blies, thus making Extrudalite particularly adapted 
to the construction of the nuxst modern storefront 
utilizing the possibilities of colortul glass Facings and 
areas oi luminous color as elements ol design. 

Because Extrudalite enjoys such a wide field of 
tise, its name actually applies to a system of modern 
construction in extruded metal. As indicated by the 
details appearing on pages 24 to 35 inchisi\c, Extru- 
dalite sections are interchangeable to a lar"e dei>ree. 
They are easily installed o\er anv rough construction 
and are adapted for use with facings of brick, stone 
ov metal as well as structinal glass. 

The sash is the key member of Extrudalite. Of the 
thiee standard types, t^vo are similar in operation and 
differ chiefiy in depth of re\eal and ap]:tearauce. 
These -the "500 Series" and the ".SOO Series'- em- 
body a simple but efEecti\e means of limiting and 
distributing pressuie against plate glass through auto- 
matic 'spring-tension control". This, ^vith the nor- 



mal rigidity of extruded metal, holds glass antl sash 
constantly in aligumeut, reduces the possibility of 
strains resulting from tuiecjual pressure and elimi- 
nates the connnonest cause oi glass breakage. 

Xhe principle of pressure distrd^iuion and control 
also reacts to absorb strains arisinu, from shock. vibr;i- 
tions and expansion or contraction of tlie glass. He- 
cause ol this, pressures are evenly cushioned and 
stabilized throughout the lengtlt of the sash. All 
tiii.s is accomplished by a simple .spring clip held in a 
gear rack and tensioned by a setting screw at the leat 
of tlic sash. This spring clip allows onl) a jncilc/c)- 
nnnrd (nNoini/ of j^jrcssurc to be ap[)Hed throut^^h the 
setting screw and automatically makes it inipossif)le 
to exert too nuich or too little. 

Extrudalite Li"ht\vei<»"ht Sash —designated as the 
"100 Series' — does not contain this automatic pres- 
siu'e contiol, for the assembly is sectux'd l)^ face 
scre^rs. But pressure is ecpiali/ed partly through the 
rigid alignment of extrtided metal and partly 1)\ a 
ton<'Lie-and-i»roove tliat pro \ ides a Aveduiut> action. 
This allows adjustment of face to ghtss thickness and 
also relieves tnidtie presstn-e againsi t!ie glass. 

In ap]:iearance, standard Extrudalite sections elim- 
inate optical illusions that make plain, flat nietal 
appear wa\y. Each area is sljghth reeded to form 
natiu-al highlights against shad()\\- lines. Thus the 
attracti\e characteristics ol l'"xtrudaiitc are retained 
even thouiih maintenance and cleauin''- is casual. 




Extrudalite 
Sash 500 




Extrudalite 
Sash 300 




Extrudalite 
Sash 100 



L. 0. F. MAHAL OF MOOERN SIOREFROHS 



PARI TWO 
E)(IRUDALIIE 




^^^^T^ 



EHRUDUIIE 
MEIAL SASH 



Fvr- 



FACE PIECE 




GEAR RACK 
-CUP TEETH 



FACE PIECE SPRING CHANNEL 
SPRING 



SASH OUHER 



■TENSIONING SCREW 
CUP LEVER 



LEATHER PAD 



■INTERLOCKING WEATHER STRIP 

-PRESSURE STOP 

ROUGH SILL 



CAULitING STRIPS 
MASTIC 



GLASS SETTING BLOCK 
EDGING SILL 



VITROLITE OR OTHER FACING ^V^TERIAL 



p-pipv A sash with :i comparatively 
OUU ticcp reveal. It embodies a 
spring-tensioning :utioii to coniroi, dis- 
tribute and absorb pressure iigaiiist the 
glass face and thus eliminate breakage. 
Automatic pressure adjustment is con- 
irolled through spring and clip. Clip 
teeth slide over gear rack until face 
piece contacts glass. Pressure then ex- 
erted on dip lever through setting 
scre^vs causes teeth to interlock; and 
as spring tensions, a predetermined 
ainounl of pressure is translcrred to face 
of glass through the metal contact of 
face piece. In this way pressure is cush- 
ioned and distributed evenly. The spring 
also absorbs shocks, vibrations and pres- 
sures from expansion and contraction in 
the glass itself, results impossible to ob- 
tain except through definite pressure 
distribution and control. 




GLASS 

FACE PIECE 
-CUP TEETH 



FACE PIECE SPRING CHANNEL 

SPRING 

CUP LEVER 



TENSIONING SCREW 

LEATHER PAD 

SASH GUTTER 

GEAR RACK 



PRESSURE STOP 

INTERLOCKING WtATHER STRIP 
CAULKING STRIP 



GLASS SETTING BLOCK 

-EDGING SILL 

ROUGH SILL 

MASTIC 



VITROLITE OR OTHER FACING MATERIAL 



Qr\rv Similar to Extrudulite 500 
^\J\J Series in construction and in 
operating principle. Chief diHerence 
between the two is the smaller size of 
the 300 Series wliich provides a nar- 
rower reveal. In both sash interlocking 
weather strips and caulking strips to 
break capillary action at the sill assure 
aljsolute weathertightncss. Because of 
this, Extrudalite sash contain no weep 
holes for drainage or for ventilation. 
both of which are ot doubtful value in 
nicLal storefront construction. These 
sash are self-supporting and their rigid 
construction of extruded metal provides 
perfect alignment and a constant close 
contact of gla.ss and metal. Edging sills 
are secured to rough construction by 
standard means of attacliment which 
arc completely concealed by the base 
piece containing gear rack. 




FACE PIECE 



SETTING SCREW 



SUDING WEDGE ABSORBS EXCESS 
PRESSURE 



CtIP 



LEATHER PAD 



GLASS SEHING BLOCK 



INTERLOCKING WEATHER STRIP 



CAUtKING STRIP 



ROUGH SILL 



EDGING SILL 



MASTIC 



VITROLITE OR OTHER FACING MATERIAL 



1 r\r\ A lightweight, economical sash 
-L^^ pro\iding a narrow reveal. It 
is sclf-.SLip]>orting when used with the 
rigid clip or can be attached to a wood 
backstop by screws. In the self-support- 
ing type, glass is held firmly by indirect 
pressure of face piece which is adjusted 
through a simple clip arrangement and 
operated by a face piece setting screw. 
Rigiditv of ex:trudcd metal tends to dis- 
tribute pressure evenly along glass. A 
tongue-and-groove at the bottom of the 
face piece acts as a sliding wedge to 
absorb excess pressure on the glass and 
allow a natural adjustment of the face 
piece according to glass thickness. This 
assures true alignment of glass and metal 
and thus eliminates unequal pressures 
or instifficient contact which miglit other- 
wise allow moisture seepage into sash 
construction. 




PHI TWO 
EXIRyOALlU 



I. 0. F, MANUAL OF 



ODERN STOREFRONTS 



EHRUDALITE 
MEIAL SASH 



Typical sections through Extrudalite 
construction shoiv assemblies of the 500 
Scries and 300 Series -with typical corner 
bar ;ind division bar sections. With the 
500 Seriv^s sash, at right, are shown ex- 
terior and interior corner assemblies 
that are adaptable to any type of Ex- 
trudalite construction and may be used 
with the 100 Series self-supporting sash 
as well as the spring-tension meniberS- 
Each type of corner bar is designed so 
that glass may be set at both acute or 
obtuse as well as right angles. Pressure 
is cushioned and evenly distributed 
along the face of the glass, because of 
rigid alignment of extruded sections 
and is automatically adjusted by means 
of spring-tension nuts screwed to bolts 
couccnled in the channel portion of 
bars at the interior face of construction. 
In the center drawing is shown a 
typical division bar assembly in a sec- 
tion framed with a 300 Series sash. It is 
similar in holding principle and operat- 
ing characteristics to the corner liars 
and is adapted for use with either of 
the Extrudalite spring-tension sash. 
These sections show assemblies which 
can be installed with equal facility in 
storefronts faced with structural glass, 
masonry of any sort, luminous areas or 
metal- They can also be employed in 
combination with various other Extru- 
dalite members (see details that follow 
on pages 24 to S5, inclusive) designed 
to con form ^\'i th them in appearances 
and operating characteristics. 




Any Facing Material as Vitrolite, 

Metal, Stone, Tile or Wood 

can be <jsed witW all Extrudalite Sash 



Typical Interior and Exterior 
Corners as used wUth al 

Extrudalite Sash 
(see pages 7U to 29) 




No Special Cor^stmction is 
needed to Install Extrudalite 



Type oF Glass 



Any Desired Facing Material 




Division Bar For use with all Sash 



Inexpensive construction with Extru- 
dalite Lightweight Sash — 100 Series — 
shows an extremely simple, practical 
and economical assembly of extruded 
members. This is self-supporting con- 
struction, showing typical glass division 
bars which are adaptable for use with 
the spring-tension Extrudalite sash if 
desired. They also find wide applica- 
tion in transom areas with half-sash of 
the ion Series (see pages 28 and 29) 
and as hokling members for luminous 
panels of Vitrolux or Blue Ridge Dif- 
fusing Glasses. 



Interior Finish of 
Store Window 



Glas5 can be C!ear Plate, 
Colored Mirror or Vitrolux 




Finished Jamb can be Solid 
Masorny o: any Facing Materia! 



Typical Division Bars 
(see pages 24 to 29) 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MOOERN SIOREFRONIS 



PHT TWO 
EKTRUDALITE 






DESIGN 




FXTRUOALIU 



MK'fAL cuUbLiucLiun with KxLiLidalite lias an 
L-xtrcmciy wide application in modern build- 
ing design. Members have been designed primarily 
ior stoichont construction. But their wide \ariety, 
their simplicity in appearance and principle ot: opera- 
tion, their lightness and strength and the ease with 
which they can be installed immediately suggest a 
range of other uses. Extrudalite members can be 
used to iorm "'picture \viudo'\vs" in residential work 
■dud, as trim, can hold many types of: ])anels in resi- 
dential, commercial and industrial interiors. Indeed, 
Kxtrudalite metal construction can be used in any 
type oi interior or exterior installation to which its 
characteristics can comribute values in modern ap- 
pearance, durability and ease of maintenance. The 
scoj>e oi Kxtrudalite application is liiiiited onl) by 
tlie imagination of the designer. To aid him, the 
follow^ing pages shcjw Kxtrudalite details which in- 
clude, in each case, a basic standard ^vith a number 
of connnonly encountered alternates. Installation of 
Kxtrudalite iollows commonly accepted practices. 
There exist no comj:)lications in using Kxtrudalite 
under any structural condition which u'oidrl ])ro\'e 
saiisiattory iov any other similar material. 



rOR COMPLETE STOREFRONTS - The diagraiu- 
r matic ilkistration below indicates ho^w easily Kx- 
trudalite may be employed to solve every problem 
in the design and economical, up-to-date construc- 
tion of a storelront. It is adaptable for use with any 
sort of storefront facing material. Being ot ligid. 
extruded construction, it provides true alignment 
under all conditions oi use. And Kxtrudalite can 
also be furnished in curved sections conioruung to 
any radius of more than eighteen inches. The list of 
Extrudalite sections include: sash, vertical comer, 
reverse and division bars, transom bars, various types 
of edgings lor sills and jambs, trim moldings, copings, 
soHu sections, hinged ventilators, pilaster coverings 
and show case doors as well as a complete line (»r 
extruded tubular doors, transoms and frames. U bus, 
through the Libbey. Owens. Kord organi/aiion. archi- 
tect, binldei- or o^vner has at bis c(jnnnand anything 
and everything in metal ^vhicli finds a use in store- 
front design or construction. A study ol the details 
on pages 24 to .^5, intlusi\e, wiU indicate the case 
u'lth w^hich Kxtrudalite may be used to produce 
strong, liglit^veight, easily a.ssembled construction for 
e\ery element of the modern storelront. 




EXTPUDAllTE 
AWNING BARS 
AND TRANSOMS 

Pa^es 30 and 31 



L.O.F POLISHED 

PLATE GLASS. 

Page 59 



EXTRUDALITE 
SASH FOR SHOW 

WINDOWS 
Pages 2A b29 tncl. 



extrudalite 

for bulkhead 

facings' 

Phits 32 and 'i2 



SIGNS 
Pdgc 16 



VITROLITE 
FACING 

Rages 38 to 45 



EXTRUDALITE FOR 
HOLDING FACINGS 

Pages 32-3? 



LUMINOUS 

51GNS 

Pages ^8, 49, 50 



LUMINOUS SURFACES 
OF VITRJOLUX 

Pages 44 to 54 incl. 




SCREENED 5 GLAZED 

EXTRUDALITE VENTS 

Page 35 



EXTRUDALITE VENTS 
WITH GRILLES 
Pase 2S 



LUMINOUS PILASTERS 
OF VITROLUX 
Page 48 



EXTRUDALITE 
DOORS & FRAMES 
Page 34 



BLUE P;!DGE 

DIFFUSING GLASS 

Pages S5.Sb, 57 



PARI TWO 

EKTRUDALIIE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STOREFRONTS 



EXTRUDALITE 



VITROLITE 




'EXTRUDALITE 



BUILDING FACINGS 



rOR SECURING SOLID PANELS -In appear- 
r aiice, strength and durability as well as in the 
simplicity o£ its sturdy construction, Extrudalite is 
A\eli adapted as a holding system for a large nunilier 
of" materials commonly used to surface building 
facades. Illustrated here is a typical application 
which in\ol\es the use ot Extrudalite sash and mem- 
bers to hold X'itrolite panels or any similar type of 
opaque structiu-al glass. It is e^■ident that the \'itro- 
lite surfaces miglu be replaced by mirrors, metal of 
\'arious kinds, by panels of plywood or any one of the 
many other surfacing materials of phenolic-resin or 
other synthetic compositions. Use of such holding- 
members docs not necessarily involve installation of 
Extrudalite sash as indicated in the sketch which is 
typical of any plain storefront facing above shoA\' 
window construction. This basic use of Extrudalite 
sections is practical for the exterior surfacing of any 
type of building. With or ^vithout various combina- 
tions of Extrudalite sash, sill edgings or transom 
members, the typical construction indicates a modern 
solution to the problem of finishing sjjandrel beams, 
facias or bulkhead surfaces connnonlv encountered in 
many sorts of commercial and industrial structures. 
Extrudalite can be similarly used on building in- 
teriors, the number of practical possibilities being 
limited only by the structural condition to ^\inch the 
desii>ner must adhere. In all Instaiucs, installation 
presents no unusual complications. 



EXTRUDALITE 



,. viTRniiiy 



7(?r conslriid:wE and 
dssL^n data see pages 
48 -5i inclusive 




ViTROLITE 



LUMINOUS SURFACES 



"TO FORM HOLLOW PANELS - ^\Mth the pres- 
I ent casv availabilitv ol translucent materials, par- 
ticularh' those which, like \'itrolu\. gi\es off lumi- 
nous color when li'>htecl from bchlnrl, architects ha\'e 
at hand a dramatic ne'iv element of design. Ijiit its 
use presents certain problems of construction. Re- 
quired behind the hnninous surface Is adecpiate space 
for the installation and scr\icing of electrical etjuip- 
ment. Holding mt-nibcrs ^\-lucli form panels of this 
sort must be strong but light In weight and in many 
instances must be so asseml)le(l as to permit rcmo\al 
of the luminous panel Itself. Extrudalite can be used 
in a \\-ifle \'ariety of such installations, one of which 
is illustrated at the left. Here a lightweight sash has 
been used with an arrangement of division bars 
which make it possible to rem()\e a \'itrolnx panel 
easily and cjuickly. This liasic type of construction 
can be developed In a variety of T\^ays by using differ- 
ent combinations of Extrudalite members as illus- 
trated bv details on the following pages. It Is possible. 
for example, to set tiie luminous panel permanently 
in Extrudalite. ^\'ith or without sash members, if 
structural conditions permit an access for servicing 
equipment from the inside. Several applications are 
illustrated in more detail in Part III of this manual on 
pages 48, 49 and 50 which contain details of Vitrolux 
installations. By addition of a few simple members, 
this application of Extrudalite can be used to form 
double-glazed areas as illustrated on page 55. 



1. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STOREFRONIS 



PHI IWO 
tnRUDALlIE 




SPRING-TENSION SASH 

500 SERIES-HORIZONTAL SECTIONS 



TYPICAL details shown on these two pages indicate use 
ol the 5(H) .Series Extiudalite Sash only under installation 
coiidition.s most commonly encountered in practice. The char- 
acter o^ the 500 Series design, the fact that sash members can 
be curved to any inside radius above 18 inches and the availa- 
biliiv ol manv additional Extrudalite members that can be 
used with it, make this sash particularly adaptable to large 
storelronts in which unusually attractive design must be exe- 
cuted in a modern type oi constrtiction of highest quality. 
Extrudalite 500 Series Sash can be used with storefront facing 
materials of all types including metals and various kinds of 
synthetic panels or stone and marble veneers as well as Vitro- 
lite. Vitrolux and other L.O.F. Glass Products. 



' - _ ' '- 'p 



■ ' ' » ' . 





B 






-f 



B 



; '4 ' 



** - 




ELEVATION - TYPICAL STORE FRONT 




JAMBS may be wood or 
masonry; or VITROLITE, 

VITROLUX, DIFFUSING 

GLASS, Metal etc. 



Wide Sash 

Edging 500 

5)5 



JHi1ILll>± LLLMLHL>mLlllt 



Adaptor -432 

t] 

Any Extrudalite 
Transom 




Narrow Edging 
510 





Narrow Edging 
110 Of 310 



PIER 
FACINGS 

may consist of 

EXTRUDALITE 
Transom members; 
or of facing materi- 
als (wood, glass^ 
metal etc) or solid 
masonry, usmg any 
jamb detai 



DIVISION 
BARS 

No, 121 is for use 
in transom areas^ 
No. 21 for normal 
window heights, 
)2I R or 240 For 

great heights 




for Transoms 




240 

Structural 




121 R 
Light Weight 



CORNERS 

At Corners, 3- 
way Corners and 
at No, 21 Division 
Bar^ the glass 
plane may vary 



DOORS 

At doors, sash may butt against 
door buck or against any trim, 
including wood^ metal, masonry, 
glass an.d variable-angle 
EXTRUDALITE member 




3-Wey Bar 
29, with 121 




/ 
456 ^455 

Adfustabie Angle 
Tubular Post 





OOOR 



JAMBS 

See siso page 3U 



JAMBS 



PIERS 



DIVISION 

BARS 



CORNERS 



Scale 3- r-O' 



TYPICAL PLAN and ALTERNATE DETAILS on LINE A-A 




PART TWO 

EnnyDUiTE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



SPRING-HNSION SASH 
500 SERIES-VERIICU SECTIONS 




ISOMETRIC 
VIEW 

Intersection of 
Transom and 
Edging Strip 



* 


■ 

4 

I 




■ 




- 


s 


1 








■h^ ^ 






s 














% 






























- 




f 














^ 


















r 








/ 






















































■ 




























S- 






\ 








^ 






^ 

















i V- 



~7\ \ 



BUILDING FACINGS 
Alternate details for use of 
EXTRUDALITE with 
VITROUTE, Metal etc. are 
shown on pages 32, 33 Cr 

43. Additional details 
showing VITROLUX are 

contained on pages 48, 49 
£^ 50; Mirrors, page 6i 




Alasoftry or 

other Reveal 

Caulk 





5I0H 




5I5H 



Adaptor 432 

Transom 33 
(Four l/ich) 



Adaptor 432 

I'Vumi*'" m'/m 




ALTERNATE 
TRANSOM 
DETAILS 

Additional Extrudalite 
Transom and Awntng Bars, 
and methods of forming 
transoms of other materi- 
als, are shown on pages 
30 & 31 




daptof 432 

■Transom 32 
(Two Inch) 




Horizontal 

Auxtliary, 

Bar 30 



Honionta 
Auxiliary 

Bar 30 






430 



DIVISION BARS 
U se Horizonal Bars 
No- 430 for excessive 
spans 



Sash 500 



Masonry o/ 
other Reveal 



- a^/A 



ttO 

Of 

310 




UINFIIIK 

.ll.i Adoptor 432 








£L£yAl\OH -Masoniy Reveal Shown NO EDGING 

REAR VIEW 

Method or securing Division 
Bar No. 21, and Intersection 
with 500 sash (300 similar) 





NARROW EDGINGS 

ADDITIONAL 
BULKHEAD DETAILS 

showing the use of EXTRUDALITE 

with VITROLiTE, VITROLUX, Metal 
and other Facing materials, are shown 
on pages 32, 33 & H2 




Division 
Strip 65 



TYPICAL SECTIONS and ALTERNATE DETAILS at B-B 

Scale 3"^j'-0" 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONTS 



PHI TWO 

EXIRUDUIIE 




SPRING-TENSION SASH 

300 SERIES-fiORI/OnAL SECIIONS 



pXTRUDALITE 300 SERIES SASH is similar in opera- 
*— ting principle and basic construction to the 50(1 Series 
and can be u:*cd lor generally similar ^Lorefroiu installations. 
Chamctcri/ed by simplicitv in design that procluct;s a narrow 
\\'iii(low reveal, iliis sash can be used wiih the sell-sLipTjorting 
member number 318 lor openings with no supporting wood 
Iranie or without Extrtidalitc sills or joints when properly at- 
tached and caulked to adjacent masonry materials. Wiicn used 
with fiat facing materials such as metal synthetic marble or 
stone veneers, Vitrolite. Vitrolux. etc.. the 800 Series Sash 
should be set with edging sills and jambb as indicated on these 
two pages. These details show typical installations inuler con- 
ditions most commonly met with in practice. 




ELEVATION - TYPICAL STORE FRONT 




Wtde Edging 
15 

(5/5 lor Deeper Reveal} 



JAMBS 

may be solid masonry, 
wood, meta I; or VIT- 

ROLITE, VITROLUX, 
etc. held in EXTRUD- 
ALITE Edging Strips 
as shown 



DIVISION 
BARS 

No. (21 is for use 
m transom areas, 
No. 21 for normal 
window heights, 
f2l R or 240 For 

great heights 



CORNERS 

At Corners, 3- 
way Corners and 
at No, 21 Division 
Bar, the glass 
plane may vary 



DOORS 

At doors, sash may butt against 
door buck or against any trim, 
iridudlng wood, metal, masonry, 
glass and variable -angle 
EXTRUDALITE men^ber 





121 

ror Transoms 



Narrow EdgifNq 

no 




&>sK 300 




^55 



3-Way Corner 



Faongs Nos. U-55 and 

U56 are adjustabte to 
varying angles 



Narrow Edgmg 

310 

(5/0 (or Deeper Repeal) 




DOORS 

See siso page SU 



JAMBS 



PIERS 



DIVISION 
BARS 



CORNERS 



PLAN and 

ALTERNATE 

DETAJLS 

at A-A 

Scale 3 = /-0" 



■ 1 




PARI IWO 
EXmUDALllE 



I. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



SPRINMENSION SASH 
300 SERIES-VERIIGAL S E C 1 1 N S 




'■ . 



. . \ ,^ 



^ , 



M- 



\ 



\ 



• ' * t 













r 








^ 






/ 






/■ 






*- 










/ 






^.. ...... 




' 1 







ELEVATION- ^^onry Reveal 




ISOMETRIC VIEW 

showing intersection of transom 
and typical narrow edging. Use 
hangers for long spans 



BUILDING FACINGS 

Alternate details for VITROUTE 
are on pages 32, 33, c!^ 43; 
VlTROLUX on pages AS, 49, 

& 50; Mirrors, page 6l 

Cap 60 
or 61 



^•••" 



Self-supporting 
Edging 318 

*"" ■■■"'L.iJiMMJ .1, 






_. ■ 






,, - 






' ' ; 










10. 






h/ I. , 






r^ 


^t 




w 

1 


w^ 



Transom 
{2-inch) 



ALTERNATE 
TRANSOMS 

and Awning Bars, 

oF EXTRUDALITE 

and other materi- 
als; are shown on 
pages 30 d^ 3 




Sash 
300 



Any 
Extrudalks 




STRUCTURAL 
HORIZONTAL BAR 

is shown on page 25 




NO 
EDGING 



SELF-SUPPORTING 
EDGING 



REAR VIEW 

showing attachment or Structural 
Division Bar No. 240 




WIDE 
EDGING 



NARROW EDGINGS 



ADDITIONAL BULKHEAD 
DETAILS 

are shown on pages 32^ 33 & 42 



TYPICAL DETAILS ai SECTION B-B 



Scale r^l'-O 




L. 0. F. 



ANUAL OF 



OOERN STOREFRONTS 



PARI IWO 
EXIRUOALIIE 




\ .\ . \ 



LIGHTWEIGH SASH 

100 SERIES-HORIZONTAL SECIIONS 



These pages indicate use of the 100 Series Extrudalitc Sash 
* for storetroius in which adv^mtagcs ol extruded metal 
construction can be gained only through economies ol instah 
lation, Siish 101 and Sash 102 arc both sell-supporting. The 
hater is double-faced and therefore is particularly adapted for 
de\clopnicnt of "picture windows" or glass partitions. Sash 100 
is not :>cU-suj:)pot ting and is in:!.Lallci[ with screws against a 
wood stop- Sash 50 should never be installed at the bottom 
of glass, but is useful as a Iraming number tor light interior 
in^t;dlaiion. I^etails here indicate possibilities ol adapting the 
100 Series, particularly to a wide range of inex]:)ensive store- 
froni uses. Corner and di\ ision bars tan be used interchange- 
abl\ with all tlnce types ol Extrudalite Sash. 




ELEVATION - TYPICAL STORE FRONT 



ALTERNATE 
JAMB DETAILS 

are shown below and at 
right. Jamb reveals may 
be or solid masonry, 
wood, or ViTROLITE, 
VITROLU\ etc. 






Sash 100 
or 101 



'H.tlJT'^ll!1'l_L 



^ 



Ma&onry Jamb 
117 




Sash 100 
■j=j or 101 




Narro^v Edging 

310 




Sash 100 
Ol 101 



Wide Edging 
15 



Csulk 



Kf f 




Sash lOi and 102 and jamb 
318 are self - supporting 
members 




Sash 102 
Double- face 



121 
fof Transoms 




S«sh 100 
101 or 102 



3- Way Corner 
29, with i2i 




455 





Sash 100 
or 101 



]i 



Any t ransom 





2i0 

Structural 



SetF-suppOfting 
Janib No. 318 




Door jamb facings 

Nos. U55 and U56 

are adjustable to 
varying angl^^ 



Reverse 
Bar 22 



Ught Weight 
121 R 




Inexpensive 
Window 



PIER FACINGS 

may consist of a ny 
EXTRUDALITE Transom, or 
of VITROLITE, VITROLUX, 
masonry, wood, or other 
facing materials as used at 
jambs 




See psge 2U 
for proper uses 
for Division Bars 



Glass angle 
may vary in 
sections 20, 
21,22,29. as 
noted 





Sash 100, 
101 or 102 



DOORS 

See also p^ge 3^ 




JAMBS 



PIERS 



DIVISION 
BARS 



CORNERS 



PLAN and 

ALTERNATE 

DETAILS 

a( A-A 

ScdCe 3"-f'-0" 




PHT TWO 
EXIRODUIIE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



K. _' ' ■ ^ '.- J ' r ^.' 



100 SERIES 



LIGHIWEIGHI SASH 
VERIICU SECTIONS 




ISOMETRIC 
VIEW 

1 ransom and self- 
supporting Edging 
No. 318 



' ' ' -1 

■ ■ 

' ' '^ ■ r 

_ ■ M^ 

' - ■ *. 

- > t 

■ _ I . 

'r, 



-■» 



- .>■;;_;;:: .vv-yv- 





- ■ '-■" 

H " ■ 

- "-r> 
- - -, 1' 

■ . - r^ 

- ^ • 

" ' i' ■ 

■ . ■. 
* . ■ 




/ 




















' 










































■> 


















^ 





















i 


=^ 




\ 






^ ^ 
_/ S- 






^ 


7 Z 









' 



•fi 












ELEVATION - Masonry Revest 




Masonry or 
other l^evea! 




^ Transom 
33 
{4'inch) 








,1 


! 



Hori- 
zontal 
Auxiliary 

Bar 30 




Masonry or 
other Reveal 



NO EDGING 



REAR VIEW 

showing attachment oF 
Lightweight Division Bar 
No. 121 R 



BUILDING FACINGS 

Alternate details for EXTRUDALITE with Cap 60 
VITROLITE are shown on pages 32, 33 of 61 
& U2. VITROLUX details are shown on 
^Q, A9 & 50; Mirrors on page 6l 



Division 
Strip 64. 
65 or 66 




Sash 50 



Sash 100 




i "^"^^ 

\ EXTRUDALITE, 
I sheet metal, 

wood or 
I other tf^n^om 




Sash 50 

SASH 5o 

(with lOO) 
IS intended 
for low-cost 
new or re- 
model I ng 
work 




Caulk 



INEXPENSIVE 

WINDOW - 

NO EDGING 




Sash 102 



Sash 102 




Transom 
32 

= {2-inch) 



Eu 



Caulk 



Sash 102 
SASH I02 

is intended 
for use when 
show window 
Interior finish 
is on same 
plane as re- 
veal finish 




jfflTTTTTTTTTTTTiTTTTTTTT 



DOUBLE FACE 

SASH - NO 

EDGING 




t«rTWiW<WM 





: Sash 100 
: or 101 



Sash 101 



ALTERNATE 
TRANSOMS 

Additional Transom 
and Awning Bars of 

EXTRUDALITE and 

other materials are 
shown on pages 30 
& 31 



Sash 100 
Of 101 



\ 
^Transom 

32 
[ {2-ic\ch) 



SASH 101 

s hou Id be 
used when 
sash can not 
be secured 
directly to 
interior finish 



Horizonta 
Divjsion 
Bar 430 




Self- 

support tf^9 

Sash 




MASONRY 
SILL 



ADDITIONAL BULKHEAD 

DETAILS 
are shown on pages 32, 33 Cr U2 




Division 
\ Strip 64, 
i 65 or 66 



TYPICAL DETAILS at SECTION B-B 

Scale 3"=;^0" 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PART IWO 
EKIRUOALIIE 




....-v.AU'.., 



TRANSOMS AND AWNING BARS 
FOR ALL EHRUDALIH SASH 



EXTRUDALITE Transom Members are intercliaiigtiible 
lor use with Series 100, 600 and 50U Sash, although a 
Series 500 insL^dlation requires use o£ adaptor Number 4^2 
in certain cases as indicated in details. Transunt members 
can be used as a facinf> for jambs and bulkheads if desired 
and can be Ijuilt to aii\ si/e b\ employing filler units Nimi- 
bers ^8 and 39. Sash can al?>o be installed with transoms oi 
metal, wood, synthetic marble or stone veneers and any one 
of the A'arious L.O.F. f^lass products. Details on paj^e '^1 ;ire 
typical of standard ExirucUditc Awning Hood install a tion>i. 
Ki dur oi The tK(j types can be installed u^ith Hxtrndalitc 
transom members or, by usinf^ suil;ib)e ed^iuf^ members and 
adaptors, with any other tjpc (ji transom in c<jnncction witii 
any series of Extrtidalitc sash. 



■ 




- 


I 




■ 


' 




i 1 




c 

1 

— 1 — 






' 




- 




* _ 




=1= 

1 

c 




r 




= 






4 




















F 






• 


, 


■ 


" » 




» 


• 




' 


- 


^ 




- 





ELEVATION - TYPICAL STORE FRONT 



Sflsh 500 



SasK 100, 
101 or 300 




Adaptor 
i32 



36 



This type 
aval fable 

ino:6:io: 

12" sizes 

and up 



37 



SosK 
300 




-37 TRANSOMS BUILT UP 
OF TRANSOM FILLERS 



i Adaptor 432 




SosK 100, 101 c" 300 



Sash 500 



No. 3l6 not Sa5^^ 

used with 100, 101 
500 sash 




Of 300 



BUILT-UP TRANSOM 



Sash 500 



;t^ Suspension 
II Rod for 
■ ' Long Spsns 




TUBULAR TRANSOM BAR 31 





Adaptor 
433 



Sash 
500 

Sash 
00. 101 
or 300 




I33 


i 

Ji 


LI IIILhI 




Li^»l 


a 

I4 



Sash 
100, lot 

or 300 




ONE-PIECE TRANSOM NO. 33 

(four Inch) 




Adaptor 
432 



m* 



Sash 
100. 101 
or 300 




Edging 
3I0M 

Adaptor 432 

lit 




r 


-f" 


^ffjWr 


V 


2 : 


I 


i 


\ ^ 


I 


s 


s 




1 


p 



VITROLITE 
TRANSOM 

S«h 100, 300 0/ 500 




ONE-PIECE TRANSOM NO. 32 

( Two Inch) 



TRANSOM TERMINUS 



BAR 433 

Used with 
any transom 
or sash 
when no 
side edgings 
are used 




imfiiMin 



Vti HI^W^WtW 



Any Staging 



01 




433 




TYPICAL TRANSOM DETAILS at C-C 5«/e r=r-o'' 





Cast 

': Pacing 



Any Sash 
and Edgiog 




CAST METAL 
TRANSOM 




PHI TWO 
EnROOALlIE 



I. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STOREFRONIS 



TRANSOMS HO AWNING BARS 
FOR ALL EHRUOALITE SASH 



hansom 





VITROUTE, VITROLUX 

Of otner /actVig 



One-piece 

Awning Hood 

No. -ao 



I - 



\K 



/■ 



X 



ISOMETRIC 
VIEW 

showing Cast End Bracket 
Furnished with A 
Hood ^O 




wamg 



ALTERNATE 
SECTIONS 

Connections to Sash lOO, 
300 or racing materia Is 





Adaptor^ if n 
Any Transom 



Hirtged or 
Stationary 



v 



Flap 
45 



Recess Dirrten^ion^ 

determined by 

awning requirements 



Sheet Metal 
Linrng 




ALTERNATE 
SECTIONS 

Showing use of 
transom, filler strips 
& Sash 500 



—Any Transom 
Adaptor, il needed 





AWNING HOOD 

and RECESS 
DETAILS at C-C 



PART ELEVATION SECTION 

RECESSED AWNING BOX 



PROJECTING HOOD 



L. 0. F. 



ANUAL OF 



ODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PHI IWO 
EnRUDALlIE 




^ 



BULKHEADS AND FACINGS 
OF EXIRUDALITE 




ELEVATION 
TYPICAL STORE FRONT 



FOR securing all types of facing ma- 
tcriiils toniinonh used lo surface 
siojclrorus in connection uitli show 
windou' coustrucLion, IixtrudMlitc l^d^- 
iiigs. Division Strips and Caps :irc avail- 
able. The wide range of standard mem- 
bers is sufficient to meet all praciical 
conditions, the most typical of whicli 
are detailed on these pages. 

These lidding members are manufac- 
tured in scries which include edgings, 
division strips and caps. Each scries is 
sized and designed for normal empkn- 
nicnt with a particular scries of Kxlru- 
dalite sash, although tfiey are inter- 
changeable to a certain extern. For 
example. Edging 515, designed primarih 
lor use with 5()Q Series sash, can be 
used with ihe 800 Series to ])rodncc an 
unusualh deep reveal for tliis sa^h. Ldg- 
ings are also suitable for use as caps. 

Details at 3-inch scale on these two 
pages show^ Extrudalite holding mem- 
bers only in the most commonh en- 
countered type of instalhuion. Large 
scale details on this p^tge suggest tiie 
wide range of facing materials that can 
be used successfidly on storefronts \vhcn 
Extrudalite construction is employed. 
These details are merely typical of usual 
installations. Thcv do not atteni])! U) 
show the extremely varied possibilities 
for storefront surfacing through use of 
many types of sheet materials and Ex- 
trudalite holding members. 

Any series of Extrudalite sash and 
any series o^ Extrudalite holding mem- 
ber is adapted for use with surhicing 
units of wood, metah synthetic marble 
or stone veneers or any one of the many 
L.O.F. glass products. 

Because these materials can be in- 
stalled alone or in any sort of combina- 
tion with Extrudalite, the designer has 
available a practical means for de\ elop- 
ing any novel plan arrangement and 
facade treatment which will most fully 
meet the owners requirements- 




PART TWO 
EKIROOUIIE 



Any Coping 
Detail 




rrrTTTTTTTTTT 



-\^-il ^Maitc Cement 



Any Division 
Strip 




Any Sash and 
Edging Combination 




vitrolite: 

Any O'vision Stup 
^ Metal 





Any Sash and 
Edging Comonnatsoo 

Wedgirtg 




= — Backing 

^ — Metal Facing 

Z Any Divhio^ Strip 





Sash 100 or 101 




OthBf methods 

of setting 5^sh 

in masonry are 

shown on pages 

7U-29 ind. ^ 



VITROLITE 
O OR GLASS 
FACING 

For additional details 
on VITROLITE see 

pages 40 6- 41; 
VITROLUX, pages 

48, 49, 50; Blue 
Ridge Diffusing 
Glass, page 55; 
Mirrors, 6l 



<^ 



VITROLITE 
AND METAL 

in alternating panels, 
strips Of other designs 

These details are ad- 
aptable also to com- 
blnatSons or Dirfus- 
ing Glass^ translucent 
marble, etc. and meta 
panels 



Ometal facing 

Mete! facings require 
a backing of rigid or 
semi-rigid board 
(such as fibre-board, 
plywood, etc.) to 
provide stiffness, and 
reduce resonance 



O 



MASONRY 
FACING 



Solid 



or 



U 



eneere 



d 



TYPES OF 
FACING 

MATERIALS 

Scale 6"=/'-0" 



COPING 




in 



< 





< L 



: Edging 
I llOH 



< '-» 

< c 
o 

< = 

_l * 




Sesh 100 or 101 




s 



m 



I Edglr^g 
1)0 




)i Division 
: Strip 66 



TYPICAL SECTION 
D-D - 100 or 300 Sash 

See a/so page 33 

Scale 3"=r-0- 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN ST R E F R N I S 



BULKHEADS 

OF 



AND FACINGS 
EURUDALIIE 




Flash!. 



515 



■Flash, 



ng 



COPING 

Using 
Edging 515 




65 




DIVISION 
STRIPS 




FACING CAP 

Mdy also b^ used 
St Coping 



66 





HEADS AT 
GLASS AREAS 



100 



Sash 



30O 





Edgtng 
3tOH 



ALTERNATE 
HEADS 



Sash 



300 



ALTERNATE 
- SILLS 

Sash 



300 




Liiiiiiiiir 
: Edging 
\ 310 




SILLS AT 
GLASS AREAS 



100 



Sash 



300 




\ 


7 


165 




166 

FLUSH 
i BASE 



DIVISION 
STRIPS 



r 


■ 


^ H M 1- 


RE 


CESSED 
BASE 


: '" 



gSsaPhuMniiuif 



See also 
page U2 




lOO SASH 

Sdsh lOf si/niUr; for 
Sash I02 see page 29 



300 SASM 6- 

EDGINGS WITH^ 

SHALLOW REVEAL 






u 



cn 
to 



LU 






i/1 

Q_ 

1/5- 

C 



COPING 

Using 
Edging 515 




/-/asfi/i 




r-ilS 



o 

or 



CL 

Z) ^ 



> O Q 



o ^ O 



1 


I 


lA -— ^ 






to ^ 






O O 












<C CL> 






cn 






ITi ro 






r^^ 










c 






umr 
rors 






1 ^ 






^ 5: 


(A 


o .. 


< 




LU 


c^ 'O 


< 






t> ^-' 


in 


CI. 




;/> 


t/> 


Ui rC 


< 


^ CD 

y cn 


^ 




D 


.E C 
oo ■- 

3i- 



LU vO 



ol 



^^ ID 



A 






c 

> 



> 



5 cn 




= 65 




FACING CAPL 

May also be used 
at Coping 



DIVISION 
STRIPS 



HEADS AT 
GLASS AREAS 



300 



Sash 





ALTERNATE 
HEADS 



300 



Sash 



500 







^ 


^ 


k. 


1 
1 1 



Jjjj 



ALTERNATE 



W.\ Edg.ng 



510 



300 



Sash 500 





300 



Sash 



500 



SILLS AT 
GLASS AREAS 




1 

1 


J|65 




lil 



*w 



RECESSED I 
BASE 



DIVISION 
STRIPS 




I 65 

i 



ITT^ 



(i 



llLl 



: 64 



FLUSH 
BASE 



M. 



See aho 
page ^2 



m 



:68 



300 SASH 6- 

EDGINGS WITH 

DEEP REVEAL 



500 SASH 

Edgings with Deep 
Reveal are required 



TYPICAL SECTIONS and ALTERNATE DETAILS at D-D 



Scalt 



,tr 



r= 



I'-O" 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PART IWO 

EURUDALIIE 




TUBULAR 



E U I DOORS 



OF E XI R U D A L I IE 

AV.ULAlilLITY of tubular metn! doors in a wide range 
ol slotk si/cs as well as siiowtasc doors and ventihuors 
nuikc's possible die complete devclopnicni ol any storeiroiU 
\vith the Extrudalite system of metal coiisiruction. Details on 
tbis sheet are typical of Extrtidalitc doors and show commonly 
met installation conditions. They also suggest the wide pos- 
sibilities lor unusual tle^iign that can be developed by com- 
bining Extrudalite doors, stock metal shapes. Extrudalite sash 
and accessory members widi L.O.F. glass products. Extrudalite 
Iranies, thresholds and jamb accessories (numbers 455 and 456) 
can be assembled in a variety of ways to meet every require- 
ment. Sizes of d<jors, transoms c\nd frames may be varied 
according to job conditions, except for the elements dimen- 
sioned on these details. 




ELEVATION - TYPICAL DOOR AND VENTS 



.'.i\"-j^ F/a Lobby 
\ > ^p LsiUny 



^n 



VtTROLITE, 

or other finish 



Tubular Frdmi 




Tubular Frame 






I 



Ll 






ass 




TYPICAL SECTION G-G 
DOOR and TRANSOM 

Doors Available Single or Double-acting 




Interio/ Finish 



Channel 
Stop 



Transorrj ofrtttte-d, Sohd Wall above 




Alternate Interior Finish 



Division 
Strip 65 




oor 



Transom omitted, Fiead at Ceiling Lir\e 



ALTERNATE 
HEAD DETAILS 

Section G-G 



• DOOR SIZES 

DcxDr, transom and frame sizes may 

be varied to suit job conditions, 
except those elements for which 
fixed sizes are given in these details 



All Details at Sc^le of 3"= T-O' 



I I .<— "WYTTTTFTlTnTTTfT 




VITROLITE. 

or other (tmsh 





Edging 310 
(oj- stock angle) 

Factfd QoSumn, Pilaster &tc. Luminous iambs m^y 
be similarly forrred of VtTROLUX (page UQ) 



VfTROLITB^ or 
ithef firrisli 



U 



3" 




Stock Angh 



455 



Built-up Post ' VanaUe Angle; 

Nos. U55 and U56 are adjustable 



Typical Tubular Post 



Tubu 
Frame 



100. 
300 

or 500 




ALTERNATE DETAILS 
at JAMB - Plan F*F 




PAH IWO 
EUHyDALITE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFUNIS 



SHOWCASE DOORS AND V E N I S 

OF EX I R U D A L I IE 



QHOWCASE door and ventilator as- 
^ scniblies can be used ^vitli all Ex- 
trudalite sash, horizontal and vertical 
division bars and corner bars for in- 
terior or exterior instaUation. Details 
are for typical exterior conditions. 
Sho'wcase door details show practical 
construction for phin sections F F noted 
on the eIe\'atioa on the opp(Xsitc page. 



For openings greater than 34" use two 
siio^v'caic doors within a singk frame. 
Ventilator details arc of typical bulk- 
head construction at H-H and of typi^ 
cal transom constrtiction at J-J. Dimen- 
sions at the ri^^ht list stock siv:es of light 
transom ventilator units. Appropriate 
bulkhead details are shown on pages 
32 and 33_ 



D MENS ONS 


w 


h 


H 


26 


16 


30 


20 


\b 


36 


20 


16 


42 


20 


6 


48 


20 


16 


60 


24 


20 


48 


24 


24 


60 


8 


2 


24 




' , 


_ ■ • ■ 

' " ■ r ■ - ' ^ 




■ 1 ' 




1 


































r " — ' 






1-^ 


■ "- -. 




T~^ 


\_ 

* 




l| 






" 












\ 












1 L4i . L 










J J 






1 












1 


■ 










1 
I 




1 




















IF 

1 

••I 
























ml k_ 




J 



























Sesh 100, 
300 Of 500 



Reverse Corner 22 



Division Bar 21 



Any Door Detarl 



Corner Bar 20 





Any Pier Detail 

/ii Sash 100, 300 or 500 



3 -Way Corn-er 
29 





i 



liil 




n^ 



ELEVATION 



SECTIONS 



ALTERNATE SHOWCASE DOOR DETAILS 

Vents ana showcase doors are intercnartgeabte m sash a/io vefticat or hosizor)tal 

EXTRUDAUTE merrbers 



'-h H 




ash 100 

or 101 





Horizontal 

Auxinary 

Bar 30 





u 





J 




[ Caulk 



SasK 100 
Of 101 





V 



Any Head 
Detail 

: S«sh 100, 
: 300 or 500 

I L J L L J 



3- 




Sash 100, 
, 300 or 500 



Any Fj 



y I rsftsom 



ELEVATION 



Mssonry or Vittolite Facings 

ALTERNATE VENTILATOR DETAILS 

Scale 3 = /'- O" 




Adaptor 432 if needed 
SECTIONS 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PHI TWO 
EKTRUDALITE 




i' L L 



'--■Jl .■ 



I 



I 





N fORM, PAIIERN AH COLOR 



SL GGlLblhO here arc a icw ot die ;ihnost liiniLlesi op- 
poruiiiiiit-'s l(H sirikin<^l\ ori^iiisil siorcfroiit design which 
(olralul glass products ofter to owner and architect alike. To- 
da\ glass can be clear. o|3iKjue or iranslucent and colorlul or 
not at the whim of a desij^ncr. It reflects, transmits, obscures 
fir ditiuscs light. It is lough, diuablc. strong and can he made 
uiihelie\abh resistant to shock and lemperauire changes. In 
all its \arIous forms, colors and finisiies modern glass, held 
permanently in phice with light but strong members of 
e.Mrudtd metal, can meet the most exacting demands which 
spring bom the creative imagination of a storefront designer. 



-^5^ 




SKAiAiiKli 



V I 



4»* 



/■■■• 
/ ■ 



/ 

[4 




7m:;'fff!Hi'^ 




Sill 

1 





i 






^^■ 



^^i^^ 






PART THREE 
GLASSPRODUCTS 



L, 0. F. MHUU OF MODFRN STOREFROHS 




PARI IHREE-LO.F. GLASS 



PRODUCTS 




Ideal materials for modern storefronts should combine 
strength and durability with a colorful and attractively 
fresh appearance. In addition they must be easy to install 
and economical to maintain. Of all modern materials 
glass measures up most completely to these standards. 



EA'ERY type of glass 
product needed 
tor developuieiit ot at- 
tractive, up - to - date 
storefronts is manu- 
factured by Libbey . 
Owens . Ford. Briefly 
described here, these modei^t building- materials, 
with Extrutlalite, comprise the most completely co- 
ordinated groui^ of storefront products available to 
oivners, buildcis and architects. 

VITROLITE is an opaque, structural glass particularly 
appropriate for tiie facing of bulkheads, store facades 
above the sho^v ^^'indo^\'s and for trim aromid doors, 
windows or grille openings. It is etpially adaptable 
tor interior or exterior use and is furnished in slieets 
of various sizes and thicknesses which are easily ap- 
plied uith mastic or metal moldings. Because of its 
opacity, \'itrolite is not adapted to de\elopnient of 
himinoiis surtaces. But it can be successfully flood- 
lighted to gain night-time advantage of a wide range 
of solid and agate colors. Vitrolitc is susceptible to 
a variety of surface finishes and may he inlaid, cut 
or gromid. 

VITROLUX is a color-fused tempered plate glass 
■which, like Tnf-flex, has unusually high strength and 
extraordinary resistance to thermal shocks. It is 
opacpie or translucent depending upon the amotuit 
of color applied during manufacture. Translucent 
^^itrolllx diffuses light so ^vell that lamps may be 
placed close behind it uithotit producing an eff:ect of 
spottiness. It is not harmed by heat from the lamps 
or by the contrasting cold of rain or sno^\^ to which 
exterior installations are subject. These character- 
istics combine to make \^itrolux a surfacino; material 
particularly adapted to formation of luminotis areas 
in Avhicli both light and color play important parts. 
Colors of Vitrolux are available to match most solid 
colors of \'itrolite so that the two materials tan be 
safely employed side by side on the same storefront. 
In addition, \'itrolnx is a\ailable in a \\'ide rani>e of 



other shades. This glass product cannot be etched, 
drilled, ground or cut after mantifacture and nnist 
therefore be accurately detailed before manufacture. 

BLUE RIDGE FIGURED GLASSES are a\ailable in 

a ^vide range ot suilace patterns which \ary in rela- 
ti\-e obsciu-ity and light difftising quality. Most of 
them are a>ailable as wired glass -when increased 
strength is desired. They are adapted to both exterior 
and interior uses and because of their dccoratixe ap- 
pearance and controlled diffusion properties find 
^v'ldc application on storefronts of anv type in tran- 
som and btdkhead areas, as light diffusing panels 
and as shon' windo^\'" backings. 

AKLO GLASS is a product of special composition 
^\'hich absorbs the infra-red rays of the sun and con- 
sequently lessens transmission of solar heat. It can 
he effettL\ely used in place of the usual plate glass 
in ^vindo^vs of florists' and ladies' apparel sho]:)S. 
candy stores, bakeries, etc., -whicli display products 
susceptible to damage or deterioration through ex- 
posme to solar heat. Aklo looks like standard L.O.F. 
Plate Glass, though it transmits slightly less light. 

POLISHED PLATE GLASS is a standard product of 
the btnlding industry widely used in window areas 
of any jjractlcal size. Interior uses include sucli ele- 
ments as screens, partitions. shel\es, etc., and a wide 
range of decorative applications. Iv.O.F. Plate Glass 
is characterized by a hii»h hister and freedom from 
imperfections. It is available clear or in several colors. 

MIRRORS of polished plate glass may be clear or 
colored and backed with the conventional siUering 
or a metallic surface of copper, bron;^e, guumetal, etc. 
Availability of large mirror sheets have made this 
glass product a practical building material well suited 
as a facing for bulkheads, spandrels and upper store 
facades, as a covering material for cohnnns and pilas- 
ters and as trim tor doors, windows or cased openings 
for both interiors and exteriors, ^^irrors can be 
etched, ground, sandblasted or painted as desired. 



L. 0, F. MANUU OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PARI IHHE 
GLASS PRODUCTS 




.■,\ -:.'.''-* 



• ' « 




TROI 




SIRUCIURAL 



GLASS 



VITROLITF. is an opaque structural glass which 
has loiio been used in buildings of all types lor 
a great \ariety of arcliitectural and decorari\e pm- 
poses. Originally de\'eloped for use where highly 
ianitary finishes were re(|uired, its scope of use has 
been greatly broadened by the introduction ol color 
variety and tlie development of neu' textures and 
decorative treatments. Its appearance and peculiar 
properties make ^^itrolite significantly expressive of 
modern design, both interior and exterior. One of its 
moM popular and successful applications in recent 
vears has been foinid in the facing" of storefronts. 

CHARACTERISTfCS. X'itrolite, like all structural 
glasses, is fused at high temperature. Its structure is 
dense and tough, \vitii a tensile strength and resist- 
ance to ^\'ear greater than that of marl)le. The sur- 
face of Vitrolite has a high luster and the back is 
ribbed so that it may be effecti\'ely cemented to hard, 
dry. stable surfaces. 

^'itroiite ^vill not warp, swell or craze. It is im- 
per\*ious to all liquids in common use and is highly 
resistant to staining, marking or abrasion. It is easily 
cleaned by "wij^ing with a dantp cloth, or, in extreme 
cases, by i\'ashing- ^\At\\ soap and water. 

PhlYSICAL PROPERTIES. \'itrolite has a mininunn 
tensile strength of 9,'^7 pounds per s(]uarc inch and 
crushing strength of 3.()r>8 poimds per square inch, 
Avhich is about 40% greater than that of marble. Its 
^\■eight in poimds per square foot is gi\'en in the 
following' table: 

a 



Thickficss 


(int 


hes) 


X 


at Wci 


rht 


PiU 


hcd \\'ci<'ht 

5 


a 








4 


7 








51/4 






61/9 


% 








<)/ 






12 


1 








11 






14 


V* 








1'/. 






18 



SURFACES. \^itrolite is produced \\-ith two types of 
polished siu'face — fire-polished and mechanically 
polished. The firc-polishcd surface is a natiual result 
of the melting, roning and annealing processes dur- 
ing nranufacture and is high, hard, smooth and dense. 
INIodem manufacturing methods ha\'e made this sur- 
face remarkably free from defects and the waviness 
common to ordinary fire-polished sitrfaces. It is suit- 
able for installation ^vdthin a wide range of usual 
structural conditions. 

Where mirror-like, reflective surfaces are desired 
Vitrolite iir black and in several other colors can be 
supplied with a mechanically polished surface, at 
slightly higher cost. 




COLORS AND DECORATIVE TREATMENTS. \'itroliie 
colors are shown in the chart on the opposite page, 
^vhich reproduces the true colors as nearly as prac- 
tical limitations of printing processes permit. Otlier 
colors than those sliOAvn may be obtained on special 
order on the advice of an L.O.F. tcchuidan. For ac- 
cinate color selection ask for samples. 

A wide variety of textures and ornamental treat- 
ments some of ^vhith aix illustrated on the opposite 
page may be gi\en \'itrolite. Plain or colored sand- 
blasted ornament may be applied, or thin inlays of 
colored opaque glass or mirrors. A relief effect may 
be obtained by cementing \'itrolite letters to a \'itro- 
lite background; a grill may be made by sandblasting 
through \'itrolite over a stencil. Siu-face effects may 
be obtained l)y various processes of glue-chipping 
and sandblasting over resists. 

SIZES AND THICKNESSES. White, black, gray, jade 
and ivory are produced in tlic five tiiicknesses given 
in the table of weights. Agate colors and other plain 
colors are made in 1 1 '32 inch thickness only. 

For storefront work, the designer should limit the 
size of Indi\idual slabs to a gross area oi six square 
feet with a maximum horizontal widtli of 3' and a 
maximum height in any one piece of 4'. For wain- 
scoting, ashlar pieces from 8" x 12" to 24" x 24" are 
commonly used. Within these limits they are fin^- 
nished Avith fniished edges at a some\\'hat louver price 
than if especially ciU and finished to fractional or 
iiregidar sizes. For complete interior and exterior 
applications consult Vitrolite literature. 

STOREFRONT WORK. \^itrolite is recontmended for 
the facing' of all storefront and facade areas \vbere 
an o]:iaque decorative material is required which can 
v^ithstand wear and abrasion, and requires a uiini- 
mum of maintenance. It can be used harmoniously 
in conjunction with \''itrolux where parts of the stcn'e 
facade are to be made luminous at night, since the 
surface of translucent A''itrolux by day is similar in 
appearance to that of polished Vitrolite. Attachment 
to structui^al stirlaces may be made by means of 
cements (see pages 40 and 41) or by the use of appro- 
priate Extrudalite members, as show^n in the drawings 
on pages 42 and 43 and the series of Extrtidalite de- 
tails on pages 24 to 35 inclusive. 

STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. Franchised Vitrolite 
dealers, experienced and competent in the installa- 
tion of Vitrolite, are located in all principal cities. 
They may be called upon for additional inforuration 
and for estimates including, if desired, entire store- 
fronts embracing Extrudalite as well as other Lil)bey. 
Owens. Ford glass products. 



PARI THREE 
VITROLITE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STOREFRONIS 




>■■ 







WHITE 



BLACK SHADED SANDBLAST 



GRAY 



VORY 




ORCHID AGATE 




SUN TAN 







ROYAL BLUE AGATE 



YELLOW 



JADE AGATE 





WALNUT AGATE 



EMERALD AGATE 



JADE 





I 




COLORED SANDBLAST OR INLAY 



BLACK 



TROPIC GREEN 



RED 



OTANDARD Vitrolite colors and 
^ principal decorative processes are 
illustrated on this page- Sun Tan, Black, 
Yellow, Tropic Green and Red are me- 
chanically polislicfl; others arc (irc- 
polishud. Agate colors show LOiibider- 



able variety in veinings. Three of ihem 
— Emerald agate, Walnut agate and 
Royal Blue agate — are furnished in 
light, medium and dark shades. When 
fii'ilt'rin;^, spccil^ ^hade dcshcd, Nrt^diuni 
shades arc illu-^tratcd. DccoraU\e proc- 



esses inchidc sandblasting, colored sand- 
blast decoration, and inlaid decoration. 
Special finishes include Chipped, 
Crackle, Granite and Honed. ^Vhcn- 
vM-y rolor ^election is an . important fac- 
U>r. t ctint-'st \^iu'(>liic sanipK's. 



HKfWCHIU 



h 



Cut 




iTlkS 



G'ourid 



1 



CUT EoeE 

SYMBOL / 



GROUND EDGE 
SYMBOL X 



GROUND FACE MITER 

SYMBOL XM 



^ G'lJund 
ghve Angle 



POLISNED PACE MITER 
SYMBOL ^M 



\.— Polish 
_2^ G've An 







h" Pol.sh^d 

Ground 




JU\AAAA,«kAA-'kAA'sAA^ 



I 



Polished! 



PROVIDE SKETCH OR STATE PACE MITE!^' ON ORDEE? 



Give Angle 
Ground 





Polished 



i/g" OF EDGE POLISHED 
SYMBOL XA 



POLISHED EDGE 
SYMBOL £ 



GROUND SACK MITER 

SYMBOL XM 



POLISHED BACK MITER 
SYMBOL ^M 

PROVIDE SKETCH OR STATE 'BACK MITER' ON ORDER 




Give Radius 
Polished 




POLISHED ROUND POLISHED BULL NOSE 

SYMBOL ^R SYMBOL SN 

FOR ROUNDINGS LESS THAN THICKfJESS FOR '^O*" 6UKHEAD COf^NERS 

i?ounded to i 

Radius of p - - ~ " " : 



^6ge 

f^ounded to 

f?'3djLiS OP 

Thickness 




Polished 
Ground 



ft 




Pofisl^ed 
round 



GR'O MrTER WITH POL, ROUND GR'D MiTER WITH POL. BEVEL 

SYMBOL XM^R SYMBOL XMj^B 

PROVIDE SKETCH SHOWING RADIUS AND ANGLES 




SPECIAL BULL NOSE 
SYMBOL SBN 



Thfckness 

Straight Part 
on Angle 
of Return 



^^ 




POLISHED 8GVEL 

SYMBOL ^8 



Pjovtde 
Sketch 

giving 

Dirneosions 

of Bevel 

Required 



FOP BULKHEAD COPNEQS OVER QO BEVEL EDGE IS USUALLY EXPOSED 



DOUBLE FACED 
SYMBOL DF 

SHOW EDGE FINISHES ALSO 



F.re Polished 
Face 

G'Ound and 

Polished 

BdcS« 




SLOPE SYMBOL S 
ELEVATION Of: PEECE *ITH SLOPED 
EOTTOH- SHOW FDGF FINISH AL^O 



DETAILS 6- SYMBOLS OF EDGE FINISHES, ETC. 



[. 0. F 



MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PHI IHREE 
VIIROLIIE 




BASIC CONSinCIION DAH 



UCCESSFUI. use of Vitrr)Htc re- 
■^ (jLiircs ?>tructural inctluxJi and de- 
tail in^ which an- definitely dilTercnt 
IVfHii those emplcj\e(i in the appiicaiion 

01 marble or tile, 1 he details and speci- 
fications on tJiese and the lolh^wing two 
]>ages show rcconnjiendcd practices that 
are based on years ol successful experi- 
ence in the use of Vitrolite for siore- 
Jionts and other purpose?>- Carelid ^ttady 
r)l tlu'se pnges and the procedures indi- 
catett therein will re\eal a consicU lijhle 



dilference in the mcduxls of construc- 
tion lor exterior and interior applicu- 
lion.s ol Vitrolite- 

Because o( the extremes of tempera- 
ture to which it is exposed in exterior 
w<Hk. special preca tit ions must be ob- 
served to safeguard Vitrolite, which has 
a very low coefficient of expansion, 
against the expansion or contraction of 
materials hack of it or adjacent to it, 
such as metal, \\ood, concrete or ma- 
sonrv. all ol which have considerably 



higher cocfTicients of expansion. Vitro- 
lite should never come i" direct contact 
with anv of these materials. It should 
cither be held in Extrudalite members 
ill accordance with typical details to be 
found in this section, or else space 
should always be left for clearance be^ 
tween the Vitroliie iiiid the masonry or 
other structural supports. This space 
should be filled witli joint (cnu-ni. 
adhesive cork Lupc. caulkinj;. or a tom- 
hination of these, depending on lot':ili<m. 



Ceiling line 





f iV'I'furring 

iw.-./^.,j.-//.wy/.Wj^.>..-. y----."--.y/ x-r: ///iW/f/:-/y.'^/. 



shims 



I^^crior 
mashc 



Fiar t\a(\ kfcw 
wifh r^ck head 
Insert 




■/\/ :'.'/ 



"■ ■" -t- 



nrcrior mastic 



Pelf washer 

l'/2 nickle 
plated Kiew 

CEILING? 




tIcUlor 

porcelain 

rosetrc 



"/n Vitrolite 

'/norVit 
Vitrolirc- 




Fm wall 

Planter of 
P3n$ hll 

„"/^^ , 
yi6 or V4 

Vilrolire 



J- — Interior 
™ rna^tic 

"/i2orVi6 

— Vilrohtc 





Pin, wall 



Planter of 
parii fill 

Interior 
mastic 



"/nor7i6 
Vitrolitc 




Fin plaster 

Removable 

ground 

{dotted) 

'l/S2>/lfa 

or 3/4 ' 

Vitrolite 



in or "Vifa 
—Vitrolite 

Brown coat 




Fin wall 
Wood rrilbg 

■'/16 or y-i 

Vitrolite 
cap 



'YuorVib' 
- Vifrolitc 



WAIN9COT CAP5 Mhn- %2 h Vf4. fp^^^d /or Mtrwr Mafhcm haoi o/ aU VdroUie 



\ 




XL^- 



front 





SQUARE DIAGONAL ROUND 

COR-NEf^ Corners o/ vdroliie tub facings 



viifoiite 










s 



5| 
•^1 



ROUND 
MITRE 



SQUARE 



* - 




froiil 

BULL NQ^E 




]'/32 or yib 
Vitrolite 




Vit or V4 
.Vitrolite 
base 



nterio^ 
ma^fic 



Fin planter 




Fin. wall 



R-cmovable 

ground 

(dotted) 

Grown coat 



ntcnor 
maitic 



"m.yifaor 

yiA Vitrolite 

ba^e 



CORNER.*! /xm7AAi ^ux' usrsRNAL 



An^ rofe cznd anj/ ca^' may Jsc uscU ui combi/ta^wn 

BASES 



/ 



"TV. 

/n or ^t 
Vitn^lite 



Vitrolite 
Cap 




Variable 




Wood or metal moulding, variatjle 

Use wme a^tadat yrimhrnf 
jamb IS of fvood 

DOOR DETAILS 



JAMS' 

ffCTfON 




Interior 

ma^ic 

Vi6toVib 

Wood (Clurn 
or mi. - V\h 
— Vitrolite 



'/u Vitrolite 



■ Slip sill 




Va Vitrolite 
'/*! a ■'/lb Vitrolite 

f/LL i£CT/ON 



WINDOV^/ DETAIL 



TYPICAL INTERIOR DETAILS 



fcaZf 3"=I-0 



ft 




PART 1HR[[ 
VIIROLITE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STORFFRONIS 



^^^p* 



:ra 




Sand Dialed 



a 



5pace for rrrastic cemcnr 

Vifc joinf rape 

Nail hole; h>3' 
punched— c^ 
on job 



SHELF 
ANGLE 



'ysior '/ife'Vifrotire 




■ 



~Qalv. nail? , screws 
or ancfiors 

18^3 Qaivorbra^s 
sheir angles 



STANDARD CONSTRUCTN 
for fiore frorils 



Face of building 
1a caulking — 



L3rge paneK 
not recommended 



^pace for 
nnaihc ccmenl" 

'Vn' or V\l 
Vifrolite 






Colored opaque glass inlay Yirrolirc lerrer; m rdief Melal icrrers 

TYPE^ OF SIGN LETTER? J^.^^ I^/z-J-O" 




•A" mreadcd 
^- bras^ rod anchor 
inta wall. 



!^6 clearance 
between 
Vitrohteand 
rod. 



Fdhor fibre 
wasfiers 



HOLES 
FOR- 

PIPE? 
ETC. 




Ma^ic tcmcnr 

Joinfcwer — 
. holes preferred 

^1/4' Clearance 
Vi frail re 



Joinr cemcnr 
or caulking 




Joinf 
i 



tv;. 



\K*' 



^;^. 



Concrete nails, 

^crcw! or 
wpan-^ion bolt^ 

Up and down 

arc shewed ficQv^ 
on Vdrcli& ed^£S 

4 




a- 



\ 



V'-^ 



'Cij_-- 



Virrohre 



7 



SHELF ^NGLE 




SYSTEfvl of MECHANICAL FASTENIf^G 
for Upper ftories 



Vifro-cemcnf 



:::!Vi2oryi6Vtfrohrc 




Face of 
building 



Cork fape 



Vifrolife jamb 



An^le iron 
frame and 
mefal mliJ^ 



Mastic ccmenf 
pointing 



'yiz"or -^hi 
virroiire 




SECTIONS THRU SPANDRELS 





\y?/j//jr-y. : r '/r//.'/J//////w/A' 



; fpace for masficcemenf 



l _ % clearance 



'=^'yi2or'A'Vitrolifc 




' -x^ . ^. 



Stock aluminum sill 
Va clearance 
Masfic cemenl- 
"/?2 0r''/it Vifrolite 



WINDOW SILLS 



TYPICAL EXTERIOR DETAILS 




Joinf cement Masftc cemcnr 5I5 SOOoa 

300 



^00, 100 



Joinf 

crmenf Mastic cement 



'yj^'^^^yy/^/fz-y// 



wyy^/Z/^/X Wy/y, 



y/y/// 



V;frol)fe 




END FINISH and JAMBS 



BULLNOSE 



Ma?tic ccinerif 
Vifrohrc- 

^QUARE 
COR.NER, 

1^0 nol use 

sharp rz:lre 




Radius same 

39 Virrolifc 

rriickness 



■/f//.-^,f^///. ■ .'yj//>.-f^ 



Vitrolife 




Mastic 
ccmenr 




an^^ o/i/i/J 



Vitrolite 




BULLNOSE ANGLE 



MITRED ANGLE 



PLANS al CORNERS 



fca^ i ^J'O" unless olkenrise .10 ltd. 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF 



OD[n STOREFRONTS 



PARI THREE 
VIIROLIIE 




I I 



nOREFRONI CONSinCllON 



TO SECURE Viiruliic on storefronts 
tlnct' instullaiion methods are recom- 
mended, first: Cc^niciuing Lo a suit;iblc 
backing using a mastic cement especially 
made for exteriors with shelf angles for 
supplementary support. Second: Me- 
chanical attachment bv means of metal 
ties secured to the wail and anchored to 
the V'itrolilc in concealed groo\es. Third: 
Ffaming ivith exposed metal members 
such as Extiiidalitc. using inastic cement 
as setting conipoimd. 

The first method is practical for store 
facades up lo two stories in lieighu P^or 
higher structures the other mefliods 
should be specified. There exists no 
height limiL -when Vitrolitc is supported 
by Extrndalite members- 
Provision for normal ex]>ansioii and 
contraction is a necessarv element in 
every V'itrolite wnU. Therefore use of ex- 
cessively large pieces of \'itrolitc should 
be avoided. A maximum practical size 
should not exceed 24" x ?iO" or W long 
for nar^O'^\■ strips laid horizontally. 
Cushioning should be provided at the 
sidewalk line, in joints and at all plates 
of contact with other materials: and the 
use of ma.stic cement nhich retains a 
degree of elasticity is essential. Bulklicad 
facings should contain a base section 
about 6 inches high to pro\ ide an extra 
horizontal joint for expansion. 

All abutting edges must be ground 
and have a small arris: all exposed 
edges Tiiust in addition be polished. 
Bullnose corners are recommended for 
bulkheads. Top edges should be pro- 
tected with metal trim such as lixtru- 
dalite cap members especiallv designed 
for this purpose and flashed to assure 
watertightness. 

Vitrolite can be installed against any 
firm. dry. rigid and permaneiulv secure 
wall surface, although smootli masonry, 
concrete or cement plaster on metal l;ith 
are preferred. Ne\er apph to uood or 
any other material that is subject to 
warping, swelling or dry rot. \ Vails 
should he straight and plumb; all loose 
surface coverings should be removed 
and the surface completely covered with 
a brushed-on coat ot binding compound 
siip]3iied tor use with the mastic cement. 
Mastic cement may be applied to the 
back of the Vitrolite slab, or to the back- 
ing, and should attain a 607c coverage 
in y^ to y^" thickness. \Vhere\er open- 
ings occiu- or Vitrolite abuts other ma- 
terials, a complete seal extending tuuler 
all edges is necessary. 

Pointed joints (as distinguished from 
Extvudalite joints) should be as I'ollows: 
Horizontal joints i^" wide and buttered 
over cork joint-tape i^'hich is set back 14" 
from lace. Vertical joints ;;'.;" wide (ni" 
may be used if desired) and buttered. 



TYPICAL BULI^HEAD FACINGS 



'Vn orVib 

Virrolihe Hoor 

Any Exrrudalif-e ^a^h 
applicable, aKo sa^h \ 
made bv otherc ' 



'/lb cork rape 

5pace for 
mastic -cemenr 



'Vj^'oryie'Virrolire ^ 



V16 cork rape 




Any Exrrudaiire sash 
applicable, also sasri *^^ 
made by oinerf 



i/ji" or l\b 
Virrolite 



rupporrin^ surface 
of smoorn maronry 
or cemenr plaster 
on wire lafhelc. 



Caulkin^^ 



"sidewalk line 




Metal separalor 



OPTIONAL GRILLE 
TREATMENTS 



l^eral scpararoL 



Frame Virrolire around 
opening in sepaiale pieces 

Sidewalk ^ Caulking 




\. 



- V4 

% Rubcroid 
1 cushion 




'/4 

Ruberoid 
cusnion 



' If 



fcale 3 -J-O 



''hi or 7/it _ 
Virrolire noor 



Any Exlrudalite sasri 
applicable. also sash 
made by olhers 

'/sjQinr 

"Aior'Viti'Vifrolire 

(upporling surface 
of smoorh masonry 
or cement plaster 
on wire !atti[,etc. 



'/ifa cork fape. 



Space For 
niasric-cement 

i'/3?or^/it"vitroiite 

Caulking 
•Sidewalk iine 



■ '-.'» ' .T ■■ \;i 







'1/32 ro 7/lb . 

Vitrolite Ffoor 



500 
510 



Any Extrudalife sash 
applicable, also sasti 
made by otriers 

"/52 or 7/16 Virrolire 

Supporting surface 
of smootti masonry 
or cement plaster 
on wire lath, etc. 



Space for 
mastic-cement- 



ALTERNATE 
DETAIL 

Ruberoid 
custiion 



Sidewalk line^ i' 




'/ife cork tape 



^helf an^le 



Caulking 



NOTE ! Use ol £xlradaliie for mslallmg Yitrolde is rhomz on pa^es 32 amf S3 




PARI THREE 
VITROLITE 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONTS 




'/8 to 'lA 

joint under 
any maronrv 
projecfion — 



Space for 

mastic-cemenf 

'1^1 or Vifc 

Vitrolite 





Flashing 



Ma^ric cement 

/uor^/l6Virrolite 



'/it cork tape 
SISHorllOH 



^R^^ 




r^T 



^^ 



500. 
300, 100 



Caul kins 

lio\ 
Extrudalire ^i 

tont wil-h— -' 
joiRt cement 



5p3CC for 
mastic- cement 



'!/32 or y.t 
Virrolite 




Flastiin^ 



Extrudalitc 
60 -bl 



Point witti 
joint ccmcnt- 

Spacc for 
mastic -cement 

'%i or Vifc" 
VitroWc 




TYPICAL CAP DETAILS 



"/i2orVit' 
Vitrei ite _ 

Flashing - 



^f\h cork 
tape 



fxtrudalite. 
but ottier 
iV^rem^ are 
adaptable 




"/iior^/ifJ 
Vitrolite 

Ma^ric" 
cement 

Fla^tiin^ 



?00. 100 



'/ife cork tape 

Exlrudalifc; 
but other 
^V^tem^ are 
3d3pf3ble 




WIN DOW HEAD INTEf^SECTiONS 




Metal coping 




y////^wA wm7^.. 



'M joint 
cemcnf 

Mantle 
cement 

i ; "A7 or Tib 
"K — Vjtrdire 



? 



■ 

I 



BUILDING 
FACINGS 
OVER SHOW 
WINDOWS 



_.'i'2i' ^/^ and anj/ 
WindoYvh^ad can be 
used az cojTd^Lnaiwn 



Scale s"-l'-0 



HOW 10 SP[CIFY VIIROLIH 



C lANDARDS of good practice ^ov- 
^ crning ihr instalhition of \'itroIite 
under specific conditions ol use have 
bcci] jJicpjicd and m f \\\ :nhibk- uj 
architects or otliers on request. Retcr- 
encc can be made lo S^vcet's Cataloy;. 
to bnllcltni uf ihc Prodticer's Onincil 
and to "\'itr{>Hu- in Vrchitecturc and 
Drcoranon' lor detailed data. The- lol- 
lowing paragraphs sunmuni/c rccnni- 
mendcd procednrc when Vitrolite is to 
be specified lor slorelront construction. 
In extended lurm, the \'itrolitc spec- 
ification should co^er the folkming: 

SCOPE OF WORK: last in sclic^dule Fonii 
location, kinds and extent of structural 
glass, and details ol thickness, color, spe- 
cial decorations, names, etc, 

MATERIALS: Specify Vitrolite bv name. 
Mastic should be specified as asphaltic 
mnslic especially made for external tise 
and approved by manufacturer and 
architect. Bond coating and joint 
cement should be similarly approved. 



COLOR AND FINISH; Specify color as 
selected or to be selected. Specily 
whether surface is to be fire polished or 
mechanically polished and also the type 



of liTiJsh I'or an\ detorafi<)u iudicaU-d on 
drawiuss. The back surlace u\ die .i^lass 
should id-wavs be specified as iibl>ed. 

SUBMISSION OF SAMPLES: .Samples ina\ 
be recjiiesied ol the \'ari(nis kinds of 
sirtutural glass specifiecL 

SHOP DRAWINGS: Complete shop dra\v'- 
ijigs indicatinj^ jointing, tliickness, ujlnr 
finish, etc.. should be recpiirecL 

FABRICATION : Specif\ cutting, fitting 
and selling according to appro\ed de- 
tails and sliop drawings. Hecausc Miro- 
lire is fabricated to exact sizes, special 
shapes of anv character should be clearlv 
s]jecificd. Specily treatment lor all abut- 
ting edges, for angles at intersecticsns of 
face and edges, exposed edges at salient 
angles, and concealed edges, 

CUTTING, DRILLING AND FITTING shoidd 
be specified to be done on the joii by 
the contractor. 

INSTALLATION: Preparation of surfaces 
lor receiving Vitrolite should be cure- 
full v specified. When installation in- 
volves work o( other trades sucli as 
masonry, ornamental metahvork, electric 



wiring, etc.. it is wise lo make cross- 
lelerence to \'itroliic in such sprdlica- 
tions. The connaf lor should be made 
lidl\ respousible !oi the cpi.diu ol ibe 
finished job h\ reciiiiriiig his a((fpiante 
ol the surlace as prepared to rt^eeive 
X'iinilite belore the connneut eineni ot 
his work. 

Installation specification should co\er; 
[a) conch lion ot wall; (i)) kiiuL thick- 
ness and distribtuiun ot mastic; (c ) 
cushioning at scde\\'alk le\el: ( t\ ) thick- 
ness, cushioning and buttering of joints; 
(e) jointing agaiiisi olher mau^rials; {\) 
material and disiributi(jn ol shell angles; 
(g) finish ol lop ( nurse: ii\ } pro\ is ion 
against uioistiu'c penetiatjon; (i) setting 
ot ceiling- and soffit slabs- 

PROTECTION, CLEANING AND POINTING: 
Contractor should he recpiired to pro- 
tect work diuang consirncl ion to pre- 
\'ent peneiraii(m of moisture. ReLjuire 
also complete pointing and cleaning. 

GUARANTEE coveiFing installation against 
defects ol material and setting workman- 
ship and against breakage or separation 
from wall, except from violence or ex- 
cessive heat, for a minimum period of 
eighteen mouths should be recjuired. 



L. 0. F. MANUAL Of MODERN STOREFROflTS 



PART IHREE 
VITROUH 





LUM 



US COLOR 



NIGHI ANO OH 



pO.W'INCIXG evidence ol the day- 

^^ and-iii_^hi \;ilnes of luminous cc)lc)r 
is shown in the desij^n of this brilliant 
Chicago C:(le. \"inohi\ has hetii used 
lo face thf ^loni-liom lonipU-u-K. Diu- 
iiig d;iyligiK hotii^ it ^ippears as a 



smooth, colordd and opaqiK' ni;iieri;i 
contribminf^- a cUnn. mo(U^rn thanuKT 
to the design, Ai niglii it bcconics 
radiant with himinous color and llu' 
eiilirc surlucc g;i^es oil ligiii that ioicc- 
full) compels attention. 




PARI IHREE 
VIIRO LUX 



r 

t 
t 

{ 

t 

t 
t 

t 
i 
t 
( 
J 



L. 0. F. 



kWUl OF MODERN SIOREFROUS 



■ii. _-..., 



TROLUX 



COLOR-FUSED TUF-FLEX 



A color-fused, tempered plate glass with unusually high 
strength and resistance to great thermal shock. Available 
in a wide range of translucent and opaque colors, it makes 
practical the development of modern storefronts that are 
strikingly colorful by day and completely luminous by night 



VITROLUX is tempered plate glass to the back of 
wiiich a vitreous sun-Fast type of color has been 
Fused during tlie patented process of manufacture. 
It is a companion oE Tuf-flex, the clear tempered 
plate glass, and has all the inaique properties oF that 
product. X'itroluK is exceptionally strong — it has 
from three to seven times the strength oF regular 
plate glass — and is not damaged by impacts or rad- 
ical temperature changes that ^\-ould shatter other 
glass products. It can be bent or tA\isted Far beyond 
the breaking point oF regular plate glass. \'itrolux is 
not unlireakable. But if broken, it crumbles into 
relatively small particles resembling bath salts. These 
have a tendency to fly apart if the glass is not framed. 
Two types of A^itrolux are a\'ailable, opacpie and 
transhuent. These differ only -^vdth respect to light- 
transmission and diffusion and are dcvelojx^d accord- 
ino- to tlie kind and amount of color fused in the 
"lass (Unin<> manuFacture. They can be combined in 
a single sheet of ^'it^olux in any two-color design. 
Translucent ^'itlolux appears to be oi-)a(|ue when not 
ilhnninated. But it diffuses light ■t\'itii such excep- 
tional unih)rmiry that no bright spots reveal the 
source of illumination in any properly designed light- 
Ino- installation. All colors of translucent \'itrohix do 
not diffuse light equally well. But the diffusion ctUAc 
of translucent n-hite is near theoretical perfection. 



\^itrolux is made by a process in u-hicii plate glass 
sheets, cut to exact si/c and spra)ed wicli vitreous 
color, are uniformly heated to a predetermined tem- 
peratLue that is jtist short of the softening point of 
"'lass. It is then suddenly and uniformb (luenched to 
normal temperature by blasting the surfaces with cold 
air. This prodttccs a highly, btit uniForndy, strantcd 
condition throu^'hout the glass. 

As a result of this tempering treaiment, the physi- 
cal properties ul the glass arc completely t:hanged. 
Strains and stresses are created, which, because they 
are balanced, caimot be disturbed -without dauuu^e 
to the uki-ss. For this reason. \'itrolux nuist be uiaiui- 
factuied tf) exact size, for thereafter tlie glass cannot 
be cut, i>ionnci, scored or otherwise Avorkcd. 

The internal stren'>th which the manuhu i uring 
process (le\elops gi\es \'itrolux a toughness, siiengdi 
and resilience similar in character to a steel spring. 
\'itrolux ran he tA>.*isted through an angle ol l'o*" with- 
out hrcakinu' and returns to its ori<'"inal jjlaue with 
no permanent distortion. It ^vlthstiuuls ^viihoiu- dam- 
age im|)acts far bc\'ond the point at whi(li unleuip- 
eretl ])late glass would be shattered. Of siill gi"eater 
iniportance in storefront work is an extraordinarily 
small coefficient nl ex])ansion under heal and a 
resistance to therm;d shock or tempciat urc change 
se\'eral times ^re;Uei than that of re^^ular plate glass. 












RESISTANCE TO THERMAL SHOCK is il- 
Ui^Li;iLC(t in this lcsl. A sheet oL Vitrohix 
icstiag an a calkc of ice is undamaged 
l>v the heat of molten lc;id. 



WHEN BROKEN, Vitrolux disinLt-oralcs 
into paiiit k'S resemhlii^^ baih sails. 
Greater impact is required to damage 
\'itr(*hi>. than rei>uhir plate ghiss. 



UNTEMPERED PLATE GLASS shatters 
when a 2-1 h, steel baU chops only 8 
indies on it. Mirokix is undamaged 
until the ixdl drops 5 Icet or more. 



I. 0. F. MANOU OF MODERN S 1 R E F R N f S 



PARnHR[[ 
VITROLO K 




nan 



Jt ^ ■■! ■ I I — —PfP— 





•^ Ot »- 



. ► #i>- 





C»«M :; * 


] 


c> 


1 


- 


1 


< 
4 


4 

A a 

^ 


4«ir 


^ 


1 


1 

4V 


V 


4^ « <- 


4* 

*- 

« 4 




r 



I 



I 



I 



< 



"l-«"-i" 



« * 



W «A'( I 



« ^ 






■• 



♦ * f 



«« 





•«* 


*. 


« ^ « 


«• 


* 1 ^>m 




*tf. 










' 


( 






•• 4 


•^ 


m^ t^ 






















J 




*^ 


■*■■ 


»■ * >. 








,.- ^ 




_. 


- 


1 










MM m f 


1 


t 






«r 


m 


i 


•« 


» « ^ — .^ 






3 

• 


1 

> 


■ 






4* 




i 



I iiitf* 







) I 



I 



t M ' f 



II 44 1 M 



I 4 



I 







ordinary phite glass in Table IV, Test 
data recorded in diis table indicate that 
the modulus of rupture lor VitroluK 
averaged 4.8 times f^rcatcr than that ol 
lui tempered phite, and its deflective 
a\'eragcs 9.9 times greater. 

Resistance to shock or impact is shown 
hi Table V, and illustrated in photf>- 
griiphs on page 15, 

Table II gives actual and percent sav- 
ings in dead weij^hl resulting Irom llic 
use ot thinner sheets of Vitrolnx in 
phu(^ ol ecpiivalcnt strength plate glass. 

The color used on Vitrolux is fuieh 
pow<lerefl colored glass sjjraved onio 
one stnfnce ot plate glass and then per 
inatiently hised durintj the tempeiini> 
pi'oeess. It thus becomes integral wirli 
the glass and is t haracteri/ed b\ the 
same resistance to wear, ^^'cathering. 
( la/e or checking. A^itrolux can be made 
opatjue or with 'Siuying degrees ol trans- 
luccncy depending upon the amount ol 
color apjilied. Normal solari/ation oi 
plate ghiss Avhidi ahva\s (H'( urs ^v'iLhiii 
a year or two allcr installation, does 
not niaterialh alter X^hrnlux colors. 



IV . COMPARATIVE MODULUS OF RUPTURE 



ORDINARY PLATE GLASS 



Thick. 
(Inch) 



Deflection 

(Inch) 



,238 
228 
228 
,228 
.227 
,228 
.215 
.237 
.223 



.044 
.062 
.070 



.041 
.047 
.035 
.044 
.047 



Breaking 

Load 
(Lbs.) 



24.1 

30.9 

34.5 

37.5 

22.4 

23.7 

18.5 

24.5 

21.3 



Modulus 
of 

Rupture 
(Lb./Sq.ln.) 



Average 



6,330 
8,900 
9.940 
10,600 
6,520 
6,500 
6,140 
6,570 
6,640 



7,570 



VITROLUX 



Thick. 
(Inch) 



Deflection 

(Inch) 



.264 
.266 
.263 

.263 
.265 
,251 
.264 
.251 
.264 



.383 

.383 

.445 

.503 

.450 

.402 

.380 

.505 

,382 



Breaking 

Load 
(Lbs.) 



108.0 
107.5 

131.0 
137.0 
134.0 
99.0 
105.0 
129.0 
105.0 



Average 



Modulus 

of 

Rupture 

(Lb./Sq.ln.) 



32,600 
31,900 
39.800 
41.600 

40.400 
32.600 
31,600 
42,500 
32,000 



36,100 



X'itrolux has lilgii icsist;incc to 
thiiiiLigc from iinpacl. .\ 2-Ib. siccl 
b.ill rtuisL be dropjjcd I'roni :i 



lici"iit of 5 or nitno to d;im;i<ic 



i\ ^hcct of i/i" \'icr<>lux. Ii wW 
shatter regular phttc glass ol simi- 
lar si/c and thickru-ss il (Iropprd 
from a height ol only H indies. 



V - COMPARISON OF IMPACT 



Kind of Glass 



k" Plate 

k" VITROLUX 



2 Lb. Steel Ball 



Critical Distance in Inches 



8 
60 



11 Lb. Shot Bag 



Criticel Distance In Inches 



37 

168 



By "critical distance" is meani: the height through which an object must Fdll before impact to produce 
b'ljitsg^ CI failure with approximately 50!^ of the samples tested. 



HOW 



AND 



WHERE 



10 



OSE 



VIIROLUK 



"Tl IE range of structural ancl dccora- 
' |j\t.' uses to Avhich plate glass is 
adapted is grcath exlended h\ special 
properties possessed b\ \'^itrolu\ and 
Tul-flcx. Data on these two pages 
clearly show the remarkable superiority 
that characterizes Vitrolux in com]:>arf- 
.son with tni tempered plate glass. To 
utili/e fully the wide possibilities of 
this material, it is neeessarv onlv to 
understand hoiv the ])roperties can af- 
fect the design of a structure in which 
it is used- 

The unusually high strength of Vitro- 
hix and its resistance to damage from 
impact and distortion makes it practical 
for use in locations where un tempered 
plate glass could not safelv or cconomi- 
caliv be installed. For example. Vitrolux 
Avill resist high w^ind pressures in exposed 
locations. It is practical for use in store 
bulklunds where stindiness is necessary 
and for facade or spandrel fncing in all 
cases wliich require luminous, colorful 



and easily maintained surfaces combined 
with a sa\ ing of dead wciglil and a 
mininnun of structural support. 

liecaiise it is less susceptible tf> break- 
age, \''itrf)lux can be used hi panels 
larger than those ordinarily pcrmitLed 
for plate glass bv l)uilding codes. This is 
particularly an advantage in sign work- 
An additional advantage of X'itrolux 
from the standpoint of public safety is 
the fact thai upon fracttn-c this glas:^ 
dii^integrates into comparatively small 
particles. These particles tend to fly in 
the plane of the glass and, therefore, it 
is desirable that \'itrolux be set so that 
the edges of each sheet will be protected, 

Resistance to radical changes in tem- 
perature and the remarkable light-diffus- 
ing properties of translucent Vitrolux 
combine to make the development of 
large luminous areas practical. Ruilt-in 
lighting ^\"ith Vitrolux as a complete 
diffusing surface can be installed in any 
interior or exterior location. The glass 



sustains no damage from thermal sliock 
under an\ t\pe nl practical lighting crm- 
dilioiK This permits a relati^eI\ shallow 
deprh between the source of ilhnniua- 
tion and the glass surface without the 
danger ol faihuT caused by a high tem- 
perature differential between the inner 
and oLUcr sinlaces of the glass. Its trans- 
bic(Micy permits ihc design of built-in 
lighting in such fashion thai the entire 
surface of the glass beecmies evenly 
luminotts. For detailed lighting data 
governing the design ol luminous V^itro- 
lu\ forms refer to pages 52 and 5,^. 

The daytime appearance of \'itrolux 
is such that this glass product may be 
used as a facing materia] in colors that 
harmonise with or match those of \'itro- 
lite, B\ night the areas of Vitrolux give 
off liuinnous color. Opaque colors can 
be combined ^s^ith those of translucent 
Vitrolux, Thus signs can become integral 
parts of a storefroni: \moolhlv Cf)lorful 
bv dav. brilliantly luminous by night. 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONTS 



PHI IHKEE 
niRO 10 )( 







CONSIRUCIION 



VITROLUX is manufactured in i/^" 
ihickncss onh . lo a maxinumi she 
ol -i'-O" X V'O". No single tij^lu is lur- 
nishecl in proportions greater than 12 lo 
1, that is, mininiuni wicltli for a 4'-0'^ 

panel is 4". 

\^itrolu>; cannot be worked on the job 
like ordinary plaic glass, Consct|ucntly, 
required shapes ajid sizci ol Viirolux 
must be mauLifaciurcd from shop speci- 
fications so that any necessary holes may 
be drilled, patterns cut, and edges fin- 
ished before it is tempered. 

^Minimum size for holes is J^" diam- 
eter: and the minimtnn distance ol holes 
or apertures from the perimeter ol o]^cn- 
intr to the edg'^ of glass is l-'/o". lodges 
should preferably be seamed or siviped, 
ground, flat-polished, or i,/^" radius pol- 
ished bullnose. Miters or wide bevels 
materially weaken the glass. 

Tong marks are normally found along 
one short edge, although small lights of 



in 



VIIROLUX 



Vitrolux may be produced without them. 

Opaque Vitrohix may be :ipph<?d 
witli masiic like ordinary striuiuraL ghiss. 
Translucent Vitrohix may be installed 
as ordinary glass ^\'hh putty or stiindard 
glazing beads in any standard type of 
framed opening. Botli varieties may also 
be held by the Extrudalitc sections de- 
signed pariicuhniy ior diis purpose (re- 
fer to pages 19 to 35. inclusive). In all 
cases the edges of Vitrolux should be pro- 
tected Irom damage during installauon. 

Illustrated on these iato pages and on 
page 50 arc a numlier of lypical appli- 
cations of ^'itroiux. Drawings are pri- 
niarilv suggestions for installing the ma- 
terial in a \ery wide range of structural 

conditions. 

Major uses of Vitroliix in storefront 
construction include: 

LuiJtinous jachigs formed by framing 
\'itrolux with Extrudalite or other 
metal members over a lighting installa- 



tion {refer to pages b'l and 5.^ lor data). 
Si^ns, as projeciin^ elements or as 
transom areas with or without division 
bars. Opatpic and translucent Vitrolux 
can be combined to produce integral 
lettering, or opaque letters can be ap- 
plied to silhouette against a luminous 

backgromid. 

In this and other exterior work, a 
specially designed i^" Extrudalite metal 
bead can be used at \crtical joints in 
]>lace of heavy division bars. The de- 
sign of this bead renders it almost in- 
visible when the sign is illuniinaucl. It 
also affords an excellent method ol 
waterproofing the \cnical joints. An 
allowance of i/^" in the dimensions of 
Vitrolux at each vertical joint should 
be made when thi.s bead is used. 

Luminous ceilings for both interiors 
or exteriors may be of Vitrolux sup- 
ported on edges of A\all materials, on 
small T-bars or by Extrudalite sections. 

Linniuoiis marquees may ha\-c a lully 
Unninous ceiling with luminous facias 
Tvhich form a background tor remov- 
aijle silhouette letters (see page 14). 








luminous VimOLUX'_ 11/ f 



r 




'/ 



.> 



PERSPECTIVE 




windOY.' 



VITROLITE 




Extrudalite 
- Tr^n^om 



o 



L3mpS 



.^Ai 




Tecs 




SECTION A-A SECTION B-B 

Showcase Door 



TYPICAL 
EXTERIOR DETAILS 




T — r 



W 






3 



■ 

M-, Lamp 







^r!^ 



^YtTROLlTE 

PLAN 

AT C-C 



] 



[ 






W^l 



brfxfrddaliii details izepa^es 24 U) iS 



I i, 



fca/e I'/z-I-O 




TYPICAL SECTION 
^oxle ^/2-J'o" 



VITROLUy 



A 



VITROLITE 



Mastic 
Cemenl 




VITROLUX 
7- ^ . 



Any semi- 
smoolh 
surface 





Stock nnel'sl shape.c 



VITROLUX 



DETAILS 
AT ■ X ■■ 
INSIDE 

CORNERS 



" - ' — " 



^cale /£>r Delads 3=1-0 



"TTZ 

VITROLUX 

Nor 

jlluminafed 





VITROLUX 
Fully illumi^3red-^,^ 



«^ 1 1 



DETAILS AT Y - OUTSIDE CORNERS 



LUMINOUS INTERIOR 
CEILINGS 




PARI THREE 
VIIRO LO X 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 





\'iuolLix. :>ign paiiL'l.'i ol two \\iLlL'l\ ail.ipULblc types. At 
upper left, opaqitc l<.'t(.L-rs were Fiisft! iii[<'^rall\' whh a 

11 []\v •>l'i!,u alj()\c. V'iiroiux 
i.s imLallccI as a batkiiroLiiitl w iLhoiii \LTLital bars. 



It 




ELEVATION 



VITROLITE- 

EyTRUDALlTE 
5Qsh SOO or 300-4 

Verhcat joint's 
qround or U5e 
Division Bar 121 

Lamp 



Access d'r req'd. 

VITROLUX 

EXTRUDALITE 
Transom 




VITROLITE 



EXTRUDALITE 
5a5h 50,100,101 



VITROLUX 



Applied letters 

bolted to 

Vitrolux 




For design of 
Sign t.c'uents 
5ee pages 57-53 



EXTRUDALITE 
Sash SO, 100, 10 

VITROLITE 
Transom 



EXTRUDALITE 



F R A M E S 



I , r^ 
Access d'r [^ 

opt'ionai--i^ 




TYPICAL TRANSOM 



VITROLITE 

'/3 ht. of tTQns-_ 
lucent area 

"clearance — 



VITROLUX 



Translucent 
Area 



Letters inkqrol 
with Vitrolux — 



r clearance — 

1/3 ht. of frans- 
lucent area 

VITROLITE 
Transom — 




(_^ 



'i 






- . 

/ 



9: 



'MQStic cerrenl" 




Lamp 






;m 



1:. 



Access 
d'r. req'd/ 




Ma^ric ccmcnr 



^:^ 




FLUSH SURFACES 



AREAS 



L 0. F. MANUAL OF 



ODERN STOREFRONTS 



PARI mil 

VIH LU K 




'*rTiTrTr7 




Metal 

lerrers 

fastened 

ro 

verMcal 

bars 




rSash 100, 
300 or 500 




Access door 
required 



onEXTRUDALITE 
"tverr.div. b3rl21 
horl3. bar 430 





with Sash '^ 
300 or 500 



ELEVATION 



Detail at" left" show 

EXTRUDALITE members 

supporhaq VITROLUX 

at" right" any standard 

metal sash sections 

For design of all luminous 

dement forms, See pages 

5Z and 53 



TYPICAL 

BUILDING 
FACING 
DETAILS 



Scale !'/z"=r'0" 







VITROLUX COLORS ARE MANY AND VARIED 



Colors of Vitrolux are translucent or opaque de- 
pcndins on the amount of colorin3 materials em- 
ployed in their manufacture. 



TRANSLUCENT COLORS include: 

White Light Orange Brilliant Red 

Bright Yellow Deep Orange Apple Green 
yellow Chinese Red Sun Tan 

Night and day appearance of these colors is not the 
same. Light passing through translucent Vitrolux to 
produce a luminous surface invariably changes the 
intensity and shade of all unilluminated colors. 




PARI THEE 
VIIRO LUX 



Therefore^ to visualize the vivid effects of trans- 
lucent Vitrolux, both unilluminated and illuminated, 
it is advisable to inspect actual samples of the 
material. Translucent colors arc solid, except Apple 
Green and Sun Tan which may show a slight mot- 
tling of pleasing character when illuminated. 

OPAQUE COLORS arc made in somewhat wider 
range. There are ten opaque Vitrolux colors, 
three of which match the solid Vilrolite colors shown 
on page 39. In addition, special opaque colors can 
be developed, provided they are no lighter than 
standard gray. 



I. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREfROHS 




A nindf'rn ;nifl n^cll-^Icsiynf^cl sioiffrom h\ (\,i\ hrctnnv^ even more attrncti\{' 
at ni^Ju ilmmtih ilu- use of liglu .ind a^Ior. Diir to consininion ^\'ith \'uro- 
lii\. liiminoM^ ( <ilnr Is intrnrliiccd as a i^cw elriiirn r in nrrhitcct^ ir:i I drsl^n. 




A 



E 



NOUS 



COLOR 

DESIGN 



A ^ a po\\X'iiul inciMiN cjI -titnu tiiij; 
'* ;i I ten Lion to any son ol di^.[:i]a\ 
Utn\\ color :i]hI li^-^lu ha\ e uon inipoi- 
laJit pasi lions as ulciiicnU ot ni(jdcni 
dcsie;n. Rut until ra vi\i\\ technical 
ijioblcnis ot combining the tivo stic< css- 
fidh have lor< t'd dcsi^iiurb to cniplu) 
dum sparint^ly and ha\c made it impos- 
sil)le to tise hnnintm^ coh>i widclv- 

Vjfrolux, IiouevcT, renders luminous 
rolor practical as a neiv and ^stiniuiatin;^ 
ilcmcnt ol arcliitccHiral dc■^ii^n. The 
material combines \i'idc' range*; of color, 
various degrccj^ ol iranslu(cnc\ and an 
alinosi jjcrfeci c|iialit\ ol Jijilit diihi^tou. 
In addition, the strciii^lii ot Vitrolux 
and its hij^fi resistance t<j ^leat and sud- 
den changes in teniperaLure make ii 
idea II V suited to the production of 
Inniinoiis color areas in an almost enti- 
Iesj> variel\ ol shapes and ^i/cs, because 
it is unatleded In ihe c onsiderahle lieat 



j^enenaed b\ iiicatidcsceiit Luiips UM'd 
to litili I ^^E^b arms. 

]\\ ([a\ Lhc (olor of \^iir<)lux appears 
(jjKiquc. The inaicrial is so >iniiiai in 
;dl outside characteristics to \'i tlf^lil(■ 
llla! dte two pr<jdncts can be use* I suie 
b\ side to produce virtu alh iiniitles.s 
4 onibinations of coh)r and pattern ^vith 
^UKJOth i^leann'n;^ surlaccs. By ni^du tin- 
jit-as ol \"itrolu\ present stniaces ol rich 
li^ht that gIoA\' in an e\cn spread ol 
ladijnt color in sharp relicl ai:;ainsi the 
(bn'kncss of opaque materials u'liich 
.uljoin ifu-m, 

lo die proj^ressivc merchant and 
rnia^inali\ e architect the \'asl ptjlenti- 
jlii ies ol luniincjus color need oul\ be 
MiujiesLecL The availabilit^ ol \'itrolu\ 
creates possibilities lor usin^ hi^hi jjid 
(C)lor as an integral part ol buildin<; 
desiiiu in wavs that have ue\ ei beloie 
been practical. 



A'itroUix ^torelronls may be desi^^ned 
[(} any degree ol luniinosit\ suited to 
the slM'rouluiin_^^. I"he\ can be made a 
brilliant and colorlul bciiton to attract 
:-onsumers against the conipeniive bid- 
[liny ol nei_^hborinii shops. 

lunihcr, hnnimius color as a neu 
archiiecniral medium ^ixes the architeci 
A \v idcr latitude in arriuiging the elc- 
men Is ol storelronl desiy^n. Physical 
b*rm^ mav be siniplified: structural 
probhnas made les*^ complicated and 
archiioctinal design made striking with 
sniofnh- easih nijinL:jinecl sin'laccs that 
)i^\\v oil colorlul li^ht. 

I he qualities of \'itrohix make it 
practical to capitalize the values ol 
nindeni materials and advanced metliods 
oi f DnsiT uction. Lrniiinous color can 
now be CMnnloA'ed to the I ullesi extent 



as a \\Ki\\ element lor the design ut aiiv 
une of storefront. 



I. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODEO SIORFFRONIS 



PARI THREE 
V IIRO LO K 




LIGHIING DUA FOR LOMINOyS VIHOiyX FORMS 



TO U.Sl', Viuolux mo^t cltcctively in 
sLorcIronts or where lunnnous color 
becomes an imj^oruint elenieiit of design, 

die simple rules on these two pages 
should be observed. 

In gcneriil. lighting efficiency is ^ov- 
erncd by the sl/e and desired brightness 
of the hnnlnoiLs inut. the relative loca- 
lioifc oi hiinps. their wattage and spac- 
ing, and the character of the lighi-dil 
fusing siErfaee. Data on these two pages 
refle( t ^ood ligiiling practice as upplieci 
to \;nious uses of transhicent \^itroIiix 
in wliJie and a \ nrietv of colors. For 
dam on sign lighting, sec page 16. 

LIGHTING METHOD 

The jecoiiune]ided lighting of traiis- 
iiKenl Vitrohjx Glass is accomplished 
hy ]>lating electric lamps behind itie 
glass ;nid enclosing them ^^'itli refieclinj^ 
surfaces 'which may assume various 
shapes or forms referred to as Element 
Forms. \\'iiilc no general set of (h-sign 
dala ciin embrace all the conditions en- 
con nifM-ed in liniiinoMs nrclili (■cnur<*, the 
eit>hi I-'h^nicni l-"ornis jMusiriUed in 
'F;iblc ]| .ire t\picah 

REFLECTING SURFACE 

l--Hjnonn ami elh't Li\ e hnninosii\ re- 
([Line C(jni])lelc cnchjsure ol the lamps 
hrhjiul the glass ^vith a rellecting sur- 
lace ol hi^li e[Hcienc\', All interior sur- 
hues should ha\ c a u'liite finish sucii 
as mat w liiu; p:i int. 



ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

The ligliting design is based upon the 
use of standard Mazda lamps, and no 
special fittings or reflectors are required 
in most elements. 



BRIGHTNESS 

1 he desirable brightness for lumi- 
nous displayj> goverjis the lamp wattage 
l(j be selected. Brightness is the degree 
o( brilliancy of a surface and is meav 
nred in Foot-Lamberts. A luminous 
surface of too high brightness causes 
ufare while a luminous surface too low 
in brightness is drab iuid unattractive. 
\n installation of any given Fooi-l.anv 
berts will have an effect of low bright 
ncss or high brightness under \arN'iuf^ 
conditions sucii as size and brighitiess 
of nearby displays and surrounding 
areas and size of the installation Ms<lf, 
.Vnd different types of commercial es- 
tablishmenis re<piire noi only a careful 
color selection but different dcgit'es ol 
brightness to provide tlie desired *MIect. 
With certain colors, loo, \\ lower l>right- 

ness ofien proves eflcctive. 

USE OF TABLES 

Table 1 lists \ arious types of iin.stalla- 
tion and recommends the degree of 
brightness niosi ad\antagc"OUS in lowv 
medium- or high-brightness districts. In 
select iug tlie lamp \\'attages from Tal>le 
II onh WW ap]jroKimate i^riyhiness value 
is requiied From 'Fable I. 



ELEMENTS 

Most of the eight himinous element 
forms ilUistratecl in lable II are adapt- 
able to typical Vitrolux applications 
such as — No. 3. shallow hackgrouiuls: 
No. I. use ol" lower wiittage: No. 5. more 
suitable to corner installations. 



LAMP LOCATION AND SIZE 

Atier selection oi the elcnitiiL lorni. 
tlie table accompanying the clemenl 
chosen will determine such faciors as 
size and - wattages of lamps, distance 
[vom the back of the glass to the renter 
ol ihe lamp and correct spacing bet^\■ecn 
hnnps. In the tables below, W repre- 
sents the width of the Vitrolux glass 
to be illuminated; D is the distance 
from the back of the Vitrolux glass to 
ihe center of each lamp; and 5 is the 
maximum spacing between lamps lor 
uniformity of brightness (measured be- 
Lween centers ol fdiunents). 

Data given in each table are based 
on the use of white Vitrolux. For use 
of colored \iirohi\. see page 5J1. 

Exomple: For a transom sign 30" higli 
the element form must first be chosen. 
II No. 2 is chosen. M) in the cohnnn 
headed \V shows that lamps should be 
H) inciics behind ihc glass and 15 inches 
apart. The other figures at the right 
lepreseni varying degrees of brighmess 
as set ffnlh in lable 1. If hriglilness 
l.'iO is selected, use (iO-wall lamps. 



TABLE I — BRIGHTNESS VALUES 
FOR LUMINOUS INSTALLATIONS 

fRecommended averages in Foot-Lamberts) 



Type of Luminoui 


General Bngh 
of Distric 


ness 






Low 


Medium 


High 




Luminous stare fronts, 
luminous iransoms< 
luminijus brtckgrounds 
.ind si^ns 


80-130 


100-200 


150-3SU 




Pruje-cung units of 


50-130 


70-170 


150-300 




DtMTuraiive flu^h units 
(Pnncip.it uHiSs in design),. 


30-100 


50-150 


100-300 




Transtuizeni letters wiih 

jn opitv^ue background 


L50-200 


200-400 


300-600 




Marquees, pvlons. gasoline 
service siaiium, etc, 


80-150 


10O-250 


200-400 




Inieriur ceiling insia]|.i!ions: (Approx upper 1 


mils) 








,.. 500 






Low ceilings 




... 250 






Interior bjihruom and 


,,. 75 








PART THREE 
VITR LOK 



TABLE II -AVERAGE BRIGHTNESS VALUES 

FOR LUMINOUS ELEMENTS OF WHITE VITROLUX 

fComputed in Foot-Lamberts with allowances made for depreciation from initial values) 



: J"'' ". 



>. J., 



:vV.;p^^V:;^:^:^? 




v^ 

l"':.:-VlTROL'uXn 




D = 2, 3 W 



D 1 3W 



s=w 



S=l 2 W 




Diine-n&ions 
in Inches 






ELEMENT FORM 


No, 


1 




Watls per Lamp | 


W D S 


10 


15 


25 40 50 60 75 


100 


150 


200 300 500 750 tOOO 


6 4 6 


90 


160 


390 500 








9 6 9 


40 


70 


130 220 295 41S S3S 








12 8 12 


20 


4Q 


70 IZS 16S Z30 300 


4 30 






\l \^ 15 




2% 


45 SO 105 1^0 L9S 


275 


465 




18 12 LQ 






30 55 75 105 135 


190 


320 


4S5 


24 16 24 






30 40 60 75 


105 


IBO 


255 410 


30 20 30 






25 15 50 


70 


US 


16S 260 4S0 


36 24 36 






25 35 


SO 


80 


115 180 310 45S 


<e 32 46 








25 


45 


65 105 175 255 360 









ELEMENT FORM No. 2 






Dimensions 
la Incbcs 












Watts j>^r L*inp 




W D 5 


10 


15 


25 40 50 eO 75 100 ISO 200 300 500 750 


1000 




12 4 e 


90 


160 


290 5DD 






18 e 9 


40 


70 


130 220 295 415 535 






24 a 12 


20 


40 


70 IZS 165 230 3O0 430 






30 10 15 




25 


45 80 105 ISO 19S 275 465 






36 12 IS 






90 5f 73 105 135 190 320 455 






48 16 24 






30 40 60 75 i05 180 255 410 







[. 0. F. MHUU OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



D=l low S=2 low 



PARABOLIC REFL1CT0R\ 


VITROLUX^ 




1 






1 




s A 
i^3 


1 



S = 2/5W 






. E , I — r 




VrTROLUX 



D = 2 '5W 



S = 3 5W 




S = l 2W 




S = 3 .'4W 



S = 7/10W 






1 


^ 


•1 


r^^ 






Dimensions 
in Incbcs 


ELEMENT FORM No. 3 


1 ;■-.-■: 
■,<■■■:■.; 


y 
/ 




w 1 


V 




Walt* per Lamp 


W D S 


10 IS 25 40 50 60 75 100 ISO 200 300 500 750 1000 


18 2 4 


25 45 85 145 190 265 3^5 490 


^^:n.. 


J 








s 






24 Zi 5 


li 50 B5 115 160 210 295 500 


^:\'.' 
o,*",' 


i 


l> 






S^"®'' 








30 3 6 


35 55 75 105 140 195 330 470 




1 


^^ 


s 


* ' 








36 3t 7 


40 55 75 100 140 240 335 535 




/■' 


.^ 


^ 


li*^*^ 




\ 




48 5 10 


30 40 SO 75 125 175 280 480 




[^ 




VITROU 


f^ 











ELEMENT FORM No. 4 






Dimensions 
in Inches 








Watts per Lamp 


W D S 


10 15 25 40 SO 60 75 100 150 


200 


300 500 750 1000 


IS 8 


35 65 B5 115 155 220 370 


S20 




24 10 


40 50 70 190 130 220 


315 


500 


30 13 


30 45 55 SO US 


195 


310 530 


36 15 


30 40 60 100 


135 


215 3B0 SSS 


42 18 


30 40 70 


LOO 


165 270 400 


48 21 


30 55 


75 


120 205 300 425 





ELEMENT FORM No, 5 




Dimensions 
in Incbes 






Watts per Lamp 


W D 5 


10 15 25 40 50 60 75 100 150 


200 300 500 750 lOOO 


12 5 7i 


40 65 125 215 285 400 5!5 




IS 6 9 


25 45 85 140 190 265 345 490 




IS 7 :oi 


30 60 100 135 150 245 350 590 




24 10 15 


30 55 70 100 130 18S 3lD 


440 


30 12 18 


35 45 65 85 120 210 


290 A6i 


36 14 21 


35 45 60 85 150 


210 335 575 


48 19 29 


25 35 50 80 


no ISO 320 450 



DimensiDns 
in Inches 


ELEMENT FORM No. 6 




Watts per Lamp 


W D S 


10 15 25 40 50 60 75 100 150 


200 300 500 750 1000 


12 • 6 


40 70 130 220 i^i 4lS 535 




13 • 5 


30 55 lOO 130 IBS 24Q 340 570 




24 * 12 


30 55 75 105 135 190 320 


445 


30 ' IS 


35 45 65 as 120 205 


290 465 


36 • 18 


35 45 60 85 14S 


200 320 $56 


48 • 24 


25 35 SO BO 


lis ISO 310 450 


* Posiuor 


Lamps Equidisiant from the two sides. 







ELEMENT FORM 


No. 7 










Dimensions 
in Inches 














Watts per Lamp 




W D S 


10 15 25 40 50 60 75 


100 150 


2:00 


300 


500 750 1000 




12 6 9 


25 SO SS 115 150 205 


290 495 










18 9 13^ 


20 40 SO 70 90 


130 220 


315 


500 






24 12 18 


30 40 50 


75 125 


175 


280 


480 




30 15 221 


25 35 


45 80 


no 


175 


310 450 




36 18 i7 


25 


3S 55 


80 


125 


215 310 445 




48 24 36 




20 30 


AS 


70 


120 175 250 







ELEMENT FORM No. 8 


Dimensions 




In Inches 


Watlfi per Lamp 


W D S 


10 15 25 40 50 66 75 100 150 20O 300 SOO 750 1000 


12 6 8^ 


45 80 105 145 190 270 460 


18 9 12^ 


35 SO 65 BS 125 210 295 470 


24 12 17 


25 35 SO 70 MS 160 260 415 


30 15 21 


25 30 45 75 105 165 290 420 595 


36 18 25 


30 50 75 115 200 290 410 


48 24 34 


3C 40 65 110 160 Z30 



VITROIOX IN 
OTHER THAN 



COLORS 
WHITE 



THE same procedure is EoUowed in 
the design for lighting for colored 
Vitrolux. using the same values o^ "D" 
and ^'S" as are u^ed for White Vitrolux, 

Lamp wattages as determined in 
Table II for white Vitrolux may also be 
used for: Ivory, Yellow, BrighL Yellow, 
Li^ht Orange, Deep Orange, Chinese 
Red. Hrilhant Red and Bright Red. 

I'he next larger size of lamp is rec- 
ommended for: Pastel Green, Sea 
Green, Apple Green, Light Blue and 
Baby Blue. 

Lamps two sizes larger than those de- 
termined by Table II are recommended 
for: Irish Green, Dark Green, Dull 
Green and Medium Blue. 

Yin- example, in working out an in- 
stallation in w^hich Table II requires 
(iO-\\-;nt lain]>s lor white Vitrolux, use 
75"Av'atl himps if Pastel Green Vitrolux 
is used. If Irish Green Vitrolux is to be 
installed, use 100-watt lamps instead of 

60-watt lamps. 

Incident light transmission factors for 
the eighteen standard colors of trans- 
lucent Vitrolux may vary from a high 
of ;!5.6% for white to a lo^v of 4A% 
lor Irish Green, the lower values being 
caused bv the absorption of light to 
produce color. 

NOTE:'Lhc accompanying tables giving 
data on various Element Forms are 
bused on enclosed while reflecting sur- 
faces reflecting 75% of the light. 

For the sake of simplicity, only a 
single sheet of \'itrolux glass covers the 
face of the element in each of the ele- 
ment forms illtistrated. But it is, of 
course. ])ossiblc to use any desired num- 
ber of pieces of glass for the face of 
the element. 

To produce luminous areas larger 
than those shown in the tables, element 
forms may be combined one above or 
beside the other. For example, the de^ 
sign of lighting for an nrea 12 ft. high 
may be composed of 3 units of Flement 
Form No. L each 48" high, and the size 
and location of lamps determined di- 
rectly from the table of Element Form 
No. I. In this case the abutting re- 
flecting surfaces of the three combined 
elements niav be omitted, enclosing the 
lamps with the outer end and rear re- 
flecting surfaces only. 

If such a design restdts in a depth 
^greater than practicah the distance be- 
hind the glass may be reduced bv de- 
signing the lighting to be com.prised of 
four element forms each 36" high, etc. 

In figuring wire .sizes and circuit lav- 
out, it IS good practice to allow capac itv 
for i\l least one size larger lam]) than 
planned to provide a margin for testing 
or future increases in brightness. 



L. 0. F 



MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PUT THREE 
VITR LOX 




..."'A-x.- 



-h I 




NIGHI IIME 



D A r I 



U 



Q V>rBBY 



A simple bill t.'tkTli\L- sij^ii in which Loiitrastinij tnlnrs ot X'ilroluK :ire com- 
hinrd. LcHrrln^ is op:K|Mc ii^^ainsi ;i ii:nnhnrni lirhL lorniini^ :i colorlLi! iind 
.Liti"iicU\r ]).nici b\ d:i\ and a :>m«KJlh. iiiUiwiip' area oi lumiiiuus <.i>hH";u iiig;ht. 





HOW TO SPECIFY VIIROLOX 



s 



IM-XIFICATIONS for Vitrolux 

should be sui)stcMUi:dl\ as folloivs: 



"W'htn-f irjftpcred f)l(ilc <^ltiss with either 
i)(nishi( (n]l or opntjue color is specified 
or shojt'tf on plans, it shall he J^itrohix 
7n<tnitfa( fined by the Lihbe\'X)\ce}i\J'ord 
Glass Compayiy in sizes and shapes as 
shown on full size or scale detail draw- 
ings. It shall he instalfed in strict accord- 
ance with the man a fat lurer's instnic- 
tio?is to match colors of a p proved 
samples as indicated/' 

^Vhcn use ot \'inala\ in\ olves work 
ot other irades as mason r\. electrical 
wiring, ornamenial metahvork, etc., cross 
rclcrencc shouhl be made in the speci- 
fications. These should tovcr: (I) Scope 
of TCorA; List all areas where \'^itrolux 
i'. to he used; (2) Method of Applica- 
tion: Describe type of gla/ing. pointing, 
etc.; and (■}) Str^ntnral Condition^: Oe- 
scribe preparation of all interior or ex- 
terior areas to receive Vitrolux. 




PARI IHREE 
VIHOiy K 



Since \^itrolux tannot be eui, yroLuid. 
polished, echoed or oihcrwist.' A^'orked on 
the job. ii uiusL be ordered to exact size 
and specification, U h. therefore, fnipor- 
uuu thai the architect make complete 
working drawings and full size details 
of e\ery special piece ol \'iiroIux, Loca- 
tion, siy.v and finish of joints >lioitld be 
indicated. For limitinir factors in design, 
as holes, maximiun sizes and thicknesses. 
edgeivork. etc., refer to 'Construction 
with Vitrohix" on page 48. 

ORDERS lor \'iirolux in standard colors 
can normulty be filled in approximately 
two weeks after receipt at factory. Orders 
for \'itrolu\ specifying special opaque 
colors cannot normallv be filled hi less 
than three weeks. To facilitate execu- 
tion ol ortiers, all scale or full si/e de- 
tail drawings and specifications should 
b(^ as completely detailed and as defi- 
nite as possible. Otherwise additional 
time will be reqtnred at the factor\ for 



full st7e detailing in addition to shop 
drawin*;s. 

The following iniormntion is required 
in ordering each piece of \'itrolux: 
Color, quantitv, description, piece ninii- 
ber, size, finish and sketch- If a design 
itnolves any special requirement, ad- 
\ice of an L.O.F. technician should be 
obtained before detailing. Drawings 
and specifications should co\cr com- 
pletely these points: 

COLOR should be designated by stock 
name and number or to match ap- 
proved samples. Where two colors are 
used on a single piece of \'itrolux. full 
size or large scale details should indi- 
cate distribution of color and exact 
pattern desired. 

FINISH should indicate whether edses 
are to be seaniL'd (lurnishod at no extra 
charge), grouml, flat-polished or 14" 
radius bullnose polished. 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN S T R E F R H S 



BLUE 




DGE 



OFCORAT 




GLASSES 



Bl.UE RIDGE GLASS CORPORATION prod- 
ucts, distribiued b) the Libbey. Owens. Foid 
Glass Company, include Rolled Figured and Wire 
Glass. Made in a Avide range of patterns which trans- 
mit and diffuse light In varying- degrees as re(|Lured, 
Blue Ridge Glasses find traditionally widespread 
application in j:)artitions, doors, transoms, skylights, 
windows and general industrial use. In addition, the 
contemporary trend toward a biller use of glass for 
both decorative and utilitarian pmposes is constantly 
exohing new applications in the form oF decorative 
screens and panels, lighring fixtures, double glass 
^valls. museum and exhibition lighting, etc. 

In tlie development of modern storefronts which 
c<)nil)inf dcsiiiu elements of light and color ^vith 
acUanccfl methods of construction. Blue Rid'>e (classes 
are particularly suitable in a \aricty of a])plications. 
All possess m varvmu deurees the characteristic of 
light diffusion and the ai)ility to transmit liglu but 
ob.scure \ision. These (pialities, together with the 
surface textures of the \arious jxitterns, suggest the 
use of Blue Ridge (ilasses for bullvheads, for portions 
of store \\'iu<l(nvs which can properJ\ be obscured in 
ordei to focus attention on a small display and for 
backgroinid and ceiling panels, in larger display areas. 

Mclhods of using Blue Rid''e (ilass lor such pur- 
poses depend largely on the whim of the designer. 
For example, it can be set in Kxtrutlalite frames as 
a single membrane or, as ilhistrated below, in a par- 
tition \vith double membrane bet^veen which can be 
installed a varietv of Htihtin'' installations. It can be 
secured in lead cames or held by simple wood or 
metal moldings for interior installations. 



The following practices should be observed in 
installation: 

(1) hi openings exposed to fue liazard. si/e ol Avire 
'dass is limited by recpurements of the National Board 
of Fire Underxsritcrs. In brief, the unsupported area 
of the ^'lass nuist not measure more than 48" in either 
dimension, or exceed 720 square inches; also wire 
olass must be set in noniuHanunable materials. 

(2) Wire glass is usually set ^vith tfie ^vire running 
verticallv, hence the width (alwavs gi\'en first in order- 
ing glass) is understood to be across the ^vire twists. 

(:i) Ribbed and Skvtex Cdasses are usuallv set with 
the ril)s running vertically ; hence the widtli is consid- 
ered to be across the ribs unless shown otherwise. 

(-[) Pri>ni glass distributes light best nhen prisms 
are set hori/ontallv or parallel to width. 

A slujrt lorni specihcation, approximately as lol- 
Io^\'S, will serve: "where fiij^iircd or jJoUsJied whe or 
uh.scnic glaxs is sl^'cijied licieiii, oi .\h()u'ii on jjIhii.^ t/ 

shall be . . inch in iJiickitess dini shall he jnit- 

fem. /i\ iufninj/ulineil h\ the liliie Ri((i^e (tla.ss C.or- 
Ijuialioit." If SaliiuM processed glass is re(pured, add 
". . . j)fitlent Sa/inol" I'one surhice or two surfaces). A 
label on ever\ light ot Satinol-Processed lihie Ridge 
Glass states the extent ol processing. 

Thirteen jjatterns in Blue Ridge Rolled I-igured 
Glass are illustrated on pages j(i and o7. and their 
pro[>eMies described. Ten of these are rurnished pkuii 
or wired. .Ma/e\ and Prism are additional Bhie Ridge 
patterns which are not ilhistrated. IMue Ridge ( dass 
is carried in stock by leadini; glass jobbers and gla/ing 
contractors. Quick shii)nient ot an) si/e, pattern and 
thickness can be made bom rhe factory. 



ExrruOalite 1^1 





r¥f^ 





Channel up-n^ht 



_ Blue Rld^ 
diffusing gl3« 



Tap screws 



Exfrudslite 
horizonfa! 
bar - 430 



A hollow ^vall easily formed of Extriidalite and any type of 
Blue Ridge Glass suggests a wide range of practical uses for 
these modern materials on ail sorts of interiors and exteriors. 




Roof--- -/ 



_Blue Rid^c 
diffusing glais 



Advantages of Bine Ridge Glass nre traditional in skylights, 
transoms, windows and partitions nhich rec|uire obscure glass 
with or without the fire protection ot prtjperly spaced wire. 



I. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN STOREFRONTS 



PARI IHREE 
PATTERN GLASS 




TT?^ 



CIARACIERISIICS OF BLIE RIOGE DECOBAIIVE GLASSES 



BLUE RIDCiK glasses vary consider- 
ably ill obsturily, iraiismissiou and 
diffusion, depending on surface pattern. 
I'hcv are generally characterized by (1) 
uuiiorm quality and tliickness; (^) bril- 
liant surfiice. easily kept dean: (r-i) vari- 
ety ol surlace pattern clesii>'itcd ior 
effective transmission and difiusion of 
light; and (4) versatility of use. Bkie 
l^itlge wire glass is fire-retardant and 
approved by Underwriters' Laboratories, 
Inc. (Number R-2129) for such use. 

FIRE-RETARDING ABILITY and resistance 
Lo impact and wind pressure of wired 
g;lass depends largely on the exact cen- 
tering of wire in the ghiss. Tests iKn'e 
shcnvn thai glass in which wire is prop- 
erly ceniered is 42 pcrccnl stn>ngcr 
th;in that in which the wnre is substan- 
tially closer to one surface dian ihe 
other, blue Ridge Glass is nianulac- 
tui'ed by an exclusive process wliich in- 
sures rffective cenlering of the wire and 
iui'ilier insures freedom from clusters of 
hubl)les on the \\'ire, an import :mu ap- 
peaiance consiclcr;nion. The wire itself 
is clv'AU and untarnished, 

TRANSMISSION OF LIGHT is shown in 
]ieteetuage figures lor tMcli tvpe of glass 
in the accompanying lables: these 
shottld be accepted as approNiniate only 
in specifying glass for factory and com- 
mercial buildings. Posit i^'c values for 
iliis factor cannot be established for uvo 
r<^asons: firsL Lilmratorv apparatus for 
detei'inining transniissK)n \'alucs sho"\v's 



wide variation even in the h^nids of ex- 
perienced observers; second, laboratory 
tests are always made on ihorottghb' 
clean samples of glass. 

Glass in buildings cannot be kept in 
the same spotless condition and dicreby 
loses a considerable ability to transmit 
light. Clear glass set vertically may lose 
as much as 50 percent of its original 
efficienc\ due to dirt collection within six 
months after installation. Similarly, glass 
at an angle of 00° may lose as much as 
88 percent of its initial efTiciency. 

To maintain light transmission efh- 
cicncy patterns of lilue Ridge glasses 
were designed to permit full ^ind easy 
clcaniiig. "\Vired glass normally has about 
10 percent lo^^'er efficiency in transmit- 
ting light than unwired glass of the same 
pattern, thickness and batch composition. 

DIFFUSION OF LIGHT or the distribu- 
tion of light as it passes through glass 
so that bright spots and glare are 
minimi/ed. is not e<iually effective in all 
Bhie Ridge figured glasses. Complete 
difltision or ihe rliininaflon ol glare 
caused by coiurasring brii;fn sjkhs on 
the smTace of the glass caniK>l be accom- 
plished with anv tvpe ol figiU'ed glas.s 
made UKlav; and no manulaciurer caji 
gi^n^anice, in good faith, that his procl- 
uc( u'ill do that, fn general, glasses 
which produce high degrees of diffusion 
do not transmit as much light as those 
with a lower diffusing capacity. 

1^1 ue Ridge glasses ])articularly de* 
signed Tor high diffusing efTiciency are 



Pebblex, jMuralex, Diffusex and fndus- 
trex. Patterns transmitting a greater 
\olume of light without great distribu- 
tion include Hammered, Luminex or 
Velvex. Ribbed and Prism patterns 
throw light mainly in two directions. 

SANDBLASTING of figured glass tends 
to impiove its light diffusing (quality. 
But it decreases light transmission by 
1(> percent when applied to one surface 
and from 20 to 30 percent on bodi "sur- 
faces depending upon the glass pattern. 
Also it collects dirt quickly and makes 
cleaning more difficult- 

SANITOL is a special process for finish- 
ing Blue Ridge glasses in lieu of sand- 
blasting, ft materially improves the 
light diffusing quality of any glass and 
imparts a mellow, satin-like finish wliich 
does not show spots or finger marks. 
Sanitol reduces light transmission by 
about $ percent on one surface and 6 
percent on both surfaces. 

NOTE: Where accompanying tables show 

48" as maximum widtli^ some patterns 
may be a\ailable in 60" widths depend- 
ing upon stock (m hand. Also, greater 
thicknesses may be obtained on special 
order, Louvrex, Reglex, Diffusex. Mur- 
alex and Pebblex are available polished, 
Louvrex, Mtiralex, Velvex and Linni- 
nex are carried in stock with one or 
bcnl) surfaces Satinol-Processed- Illustra- 
tions on ilicse tw'o pages show actual 
si/e of patterns except where noted. 



.--.•■ 









REGLEX 



Thictness, Int. 

Max. width, ins- 

Max. ength, ins. 

Appfox. wt., 
bs. per sq. ft. 

AppfOK. light 
trans., % 


PUin 


Wired 


48 
132.136 

2.2^4,3^2 
52.3 


not 

made 





PHI THREE 
PAIIERN GLASS 



LOUVREX 

lllustrdtions; J^ full size 



Thickness, ins. 


Plain 


Wired 


appfox. ^ 




Max. width, ins- 


54 




Max. ength^ins. 


136 


not 


Approx. wt.j 
bs. persq. ft. 


3Vz 


made 


Approx. ight 
trans., % 


90.0 





I 



SKYTEX 



Thickness, ins. 


Plain 


Wired 


'/8,V'/4 


H 


Max, width, Ins. 


48 


48 


MftK. ength, ins. 


32, 136 


144 


Approx. wt., 
lbs. per sq. ft 


2,2\3V2 


Z\ 


Approx. Ight 
trans., % 


66.8 


56.8 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 




RIBBED 



Thickness, ins. 

Max. width, ins. 

Max, length, ins, 

ApprOx, wt-, 
lbs. per sq. ft. 

AppfO^, light 
trans., % 



Plain 



48 

90,132,136 

2.2^4. 3^ 
5,6^/4 

84.4 



Wired 



x\y2 

48 
90. 144 

3^/, ,5, 8 
74.4 




MURALEX 



Thickness, Ifis. 


Plain 


Wired 


dpprox. V4 


'/, 


Max, width, Ins. 


48 


48 


MaK. ength^ins. 


136 


44 


Approx. wt,, 
b^. persq, ft. 


3H 


3^/4 


Approst. light 
trans., % 


86.0 


75.0 










NDUSTREX 









Thiclth^ss, ins. 
Max- width, ins. 

Max. length. ins. 

Appr(?x, wt, 
lbs. per sq. ft, 

Approx, light 
tfansp/ % 



Plain Wired 



48 
132, 136 

2,2^4,34 



88,2 



'/4 
48 
144 

3V4 
78,2 




PEBBLEX 



Thickness, ins. 


Pain 


Wired 


\\,.% 


H 


Max. width, ins. 


48 


48 


Ma?;. ength,Tn^, 


132, 136 


144 


ApproK- wt., 
!bs. per sq. ft. 


t.l%^\ 


33^4 


Approx. rght 
trans., % 


n.i 


69,7 




TRANSEX 



Illustration Va fvjfl size 






Thickness, ins. 


Pain 


Wired 


approx. V4 




Max. width; ins. 


48 




Mflx^ ength, ins. 


135 


not 


Approx, wt,^ 
bs, per sq. fL 


3'/3 


made 


Approx. ight 
trans., % 


87.5 





t. 



1: 




« 







V 






VELVEX 



TKitkness, ins. 

Mai. width, ins. 

Max, length. ins. 

Approi, wt,, 
lbs. per sq. ft. 

Approx. light 
trans., "0 



Plain 



\'i.\,h 



48 
132,136 

2,2\3'/2 
89.0 



Wired 



48 
144 

3^/4 
79.0 




DIFFUSEX 







Thickness, ms. 


Plain 


Wired 


\\% 


'/* 


Max. width, ins. 


48 


48 


Max. ength, ins. 


132. 136 


144 


Approx. wt., 
bs. per sq, ft. 


2,2'''4.3V2 


3V4 


Approx. IgKl 
trans., % 


87,6 


77.6 



HAMMERED 



Thickness, ins- 
Max, width, ins- 

Mox. length, Ins. 

Approx, wt., 
lbs. per sq. ft. 

Approx. light 
trans., % 



Plain 



48 

90,132,136 

2,2^4.3Vz 
5, 6^/^ 

90,0 



Wired 



'/4,V8.4 

48 
90, 144 

3^4,5,8 
80.0 




LUMINEX 








Thickness^ ins. 


Pain 


Wired 


%M^.% 


h 


Max. width, ms. 


48 


48 


M&x. length, ins. 


132, 136 


144 


Approx. svt., 
lbs. per sq, ft. 


2,2^/4,3'/2 


3V4 


Approx. ight 
trans., "o 


S8,4 


78,4 



FLOREX 



Thickness, ins. 

Max, width, irhs. 

Max. length, ins. 

ApprOx. wt., 
lbs. per sq, ft. 

Appro>«. light 
brans., % 



Plain Wired 



48 
132,136 

2,2V4,3"/z 
86,2 



48 
144 

76,2 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIORFFRONIS 



PHI IHEE 
PATIERN GLASS 




', ^^ ^ 



AKIO 



HEAT-ABSORB 




GLASS 



AfiSOReED 

^1 



48 



24%^ 



47 



HEAT- 
IN SUNLIGHT 

100% 



fo'i>s: 



A 



% REFLECTED 
LIGHT OF RKLU 



7I?2 ENTERS; 29% IS EXCLUDED 



Kl,(> Plate Glass is a 
product of special 
clieinical composition 
^\-liiclt absovijs most oF 
the iiifra-rcd rays oT the 
sun and consequently 
lessens the transnnssion 
ot solar heat. Although 
similar to standard t)pes 
of plate ^lass in appear- 
ante and most physical 
characteristics, Aklo has a factcjr of h<^ht transmission 
V2% lo\^'ev than that of ordinary glass. Its resistance 
to heat transmission is ahnost tin^ee limes '>reaLer than 
that of orchnary ;^Iass and its coedicicnt of expansion 
only halt as f^reat. 

These characteristics sti<'<»est a numhcr of uses in 
many types of btiildinf^s — a hst (hat is rapiclh in- 
creasing as the tise of glass becomes more widesjjiead 
in modern structures. Amon^^ ihc mosi im])()rtant 
current uses of Aklo are: 

1. To pro\ ide cooler, or more e\ en tempcratmes 
in roKims or enclosed porches of residences with Avin- 
dou's constantly exposed to direct ra\s o\ the sini. 

2. For redtua'n^" damage l(> perishable ^joods 
exposed in storefront display areas. 

.S. To reduce costlv ladinj^ ol color^i in displays 
that are affected by solar heat ravs. 

4. To maintain more equable U'mperattu'es in 
refrit^erated sho\\" \\'ind()\\s exposed lo die stni. 

5. To increase comfort in olhces b\ refhicinj^ both 
olarc and sundieat. 



6. To reduce summer heat-gain in buildings 
haying skylights with single or double gla/mg. 

The diagram at the left gTaphically illustrates the 
characteristics of Aklo glass. The polished surface 
of the glass reflects 5% of the sim's radiant heat. 
Half of the remainder, or -18%, is absorbed by Aklo. 
The balance, 47%, enters the room innnediately. The 
48%, \\iiich is absorbed is dissij^ated equally by both 
sides of the glass, so that 24'^;, of it enters the room. 
C:onse(]uently, 71%. of the sun's heat enters the room 
throtigh Aklo glass, and 29% is exieluded. 

In the table are listed the comparative performance 
of Aklo and ordinary glass in respect to light and 
heat transmission under \ariovis conditions of use. 
Comparative figures for Maxinuini Temperature 
Dia-eience between Interior and Exterior were 
recorded as a result of laboratory experiments. Actual 
tem[jeratine difference in btiildings will \ary -with 
the area of exposed glass, the volume of the room 
and the rate of heat loss from the room itself. 

Aklo has a high resistance to thermal shock due to 
its lo\\- coenieient of expansion. This permits the use 
of lar<;e lights \v'hich might otherwise be fractured by 
cooling action of sudden shadows on hot days. 

Standard thicknesses of Aklo Plate Glass are l/^ 
and Y^ inch. Sheets in i 4 inch thickness are available 
in any dimensions under a maximum of 128x284 
inches. Standard thickness lor gla/ing purposes is 
14 inch, btit this may \ary from .{-.f to f^, inch. 

Tolerances and \ariatIons in thicknesses are iden- 
tical for Aklo Plate Glass and standard plate glass. 
For a lidl description, refer to table on page 59. 



FIGURES IN THIS TABLE icpu'st-m tiiiin 
obiaiiu'tl tinder l;il)()i".uor\ cDiidElions. 
\', I lues oinaiiu'd in 5cr\icc nun \;tr^ 
with job foncli lions wiiliin rc:js(HKii>lr 
limits. 



COMPARATIVE LIGHT and 
HEAT TRANSMISSION 


Type of 

Window 

and Glass 


% Visible % Total 
Light Radiant Heat 
Transmitted Eve uded 


Sing e Window 
'/;■ PLATE 


92 


10 


Sing e Wlf>dow 
1/4" AKLO 


80 


29 


Doub e Window 

y;' PLATE 


85 


16 


Double Window 
AKLO and 
Vi" PLATE 


75 


41 




PARI THREE 
niO GLASS 




AKLO protects contents of this florist's window from uithering effect of solar hcai 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONTS 






POLISHED 



LO.F. Polished Plate Glass is inaiuitactured in 
■ plains etjuippcd throughout witli the fuiest, 
most luodeni e(|nipinent and ol' raw materials of the 
highest quaUty. It is characterized by brilliance, 
clarity and sparkling- luster, the result of grinding 
and polishing by highly accnrate machines. Grind- 
ing* renio\'cs surface ine(pialities and polishing, 
Avhich is done by telt-covered rotating discs, imparts 
a high luster. Each light of glass is careftilly inspected 
and graded before receiving the L.O.F. label. 

The very finest polished |)late glass, \\'hich is used 
almost excUisiNely in making the costliest mirrors, is 
known as "First Silvering" (piaiity. It is ne\er sj^cci- 
Ued lor building purposes because of its Iiigh cost. 
The next (juallty is "Second Sihering," often used 
for liigh grade glazing ^vork; it is seldom specified in 
sizes ON er 20 scpiarc feet. Plate glass most commonly 
used for glazing pinposes is "Glazing" quality. 

Definite requirements for tolerances in thickness 
and dimensions are set up by U. S. Go\ernment spe- 
cifications. These are described in the accomi^anviny; 
table together with data on a\ailal)ie sizes, wciglus 
and colors of L.O.F. Polished Plate Glass. 

Polished plate glass, clear or in colors, may be 
subjected to a tempering process to prodtice Tuf-fiex 
with superior structtn^al properties atid high resist- 
ance to thermal shock. \'itrolu\ is also a tempered 
plate glass product ^vith all the properties that char- 
acterize Tuf-fiex. In addition, its color is fused to one 
lace during the tempering piocess. X'itrolux nun be 
opa(pie or translucent, depending upon the amount 
of coloring material applied to it. 



PLAIE 



GLASS 



Clear polished plate glass is available in a range of 
thicknesses and in standard sheets large enough to 
meet all average x-eqnirements of storefront installa- 
tions. Slieets larger than those listed below can be 
obtained, but only on special order. In all cases that 
in\'olve use of unusually large areas of plate glass, 
advice of Libbey.O\vens.Ford technicians should be 
sought by the architect before installation is specified. 

COLORFD plate glass is manufactured by Libbey. 
Owens. Ford hi green, peach and three shades of 
blue. In all major physical aspects, it is similar to 
clear plate glass and is characterized by the same 
luster and clarity. The ability of colored glass to 
transmit light \'aries widely in comparison to clear 
plate, as indicated in the table belo^v. 

As an essential material for store windows and 
disj:)lay cases, polished plate glass is imiversall)' ac- 
cepted. (Contemporary design is rapidly extending 
its uses in intcricn" decoration as Avell as architectural 
design. It is ea.sily ciU, ground, etched or painted; 
it can be cur\ed to a simple radius or formed into a 
variety of shapes. These possibilities have gi\'en 
plate glass a growing popidarity and modern de- 
signers are now using it cffecti\ely for decorative 
panels, for shelving, for screens and e\'en for furni- 
ture. Architects have recognized it as a building ma- 
terial of both structural and decorative ^vorth and 
are using both clear and colored plate for interior 
partitions to control a flow of traffic witliout obstruct- 
ing vision, for a<]uaria, conser\atory screens and 
"picture windows" of tnuisually large area. 



DIMENSIONS and CHARACTERISTICS of L.O.F. PLATE GLASS 


Thicknesses Available 
(Inches) 


Maximum Dimensions 

( nches) 


Qualities and 
Uses 


Weights 


Colors 


H 


80 X 125 


First Slivering Qua - 
ity for use in very 
finest mirrors; not 
used for bui ding 
purposes 

Second SrlverJng 
Quality for use in 
mirrors and high- 
grade g azing in 
sizes not exceeding 
20 sq. ft. 

Glazing Quality for 
a g azing purposes 


Ap proximate 
weight of L.O. F- 
P ote G ass in 
pounds per square 
foot may be 
derived from the 
fo owing ru e: 
Weight = 1 62± 
bs. per square 
foot per i^ of 

thickness 


L.O- F. Po ished P ate G ass is avai ab e in 

rich deep tones of: 

Green, Peach, B ues ranging From pa e to deep 


'H. 


126x274 


H 


125x274 


% 


126x274 


Efficiency of Light Transmission 


H 


126x274 


Glass 


% Total Light 
Transmitted 


% Transmitted 

Compared with 
Clear P ate 


% 


126 X 250 


% 


126 X 215 


Standard B ue 


55 


62 


•♦7/ 

/32 


126x274 


Medium Blue 


43 


47 


Tolerance: "Max. and min. shou d not exceed given 
thickness ± 5^ difference between standard thicknesses; 
for ights under J^"thickness and sq, ft, ^ variation 
(thJckness) shou d not exceed \^^^\ for lights over V 
thickness, not more than i^ tota tolerance For that 
thickness'' * U. S. Gov't. Standard 


Dark Bue 


5.5 


6 


Standard Green 


57 


63 


Peach 


81 


89 


Qo ored Plate Glass 




C ear Plate 


92 


100 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PUT THREE 
PLAIE GLASS 




. , .--^ ", / L. 





-> 



_^ 




POT THREE 

n RS 



HORS OF POLISHED PLAIE- 

A COLORFUL BUILDING MATERIAL 



THROL GHUL 1 hisLOry mirrors li;ne 
had iniponniit uses as accessories 
ill tiif firltls ol arthiu-clur.d And tlcLora- 
Li\c (leni.trn. Bui onlv until modern 
industrial science standardized the quiil- 
iiv of mirrored glass and made it easiU 
available in large areas could mirror be 
^^enerally regarded as a practical. MJdcIv 
adaptable modern buildinj^ material. 

Todav LX).K. Mirrnrv o[ Polished 
Plate Glass have a wiile Helti ol appli- 
cation as a facing material on both ex- 
teriors and interiors of all tvpe;. of 
bnildiiigs. Particidarh on storefronts 
mirror surfaces can conirihuie unusual 
color and an attracti\c and unique 
<juaiii\ of brilliant lustre that are not 
to be found among other materials com- 
monh used a^ finishes on storefronts. 

In show windows mirrors are being 



used more and more as coverings for 
Lolunuis to sive an illusion of a con- 
tinuous dispfa\ and also as panels at 
the sides of show ivindou-s to create an 
impression of an enlarged display area. 
In store interiors large areas of mirror 
serve a valuable purpose in producing 
a sense of greater height and lloor area. 
Because mirrors are subject to so 
ni.in\ applications and decorative treat- 
ments their use is virinalK limited onh 
by the imagination of the dcsi^'ner. 
Mirrors o[ polished plate glass can he 
etched, sandblasted or i>ainted. .\ ^^•ide 
range of eohn" combinations is possible. 
for I..0.1''. mirror,-, arc available in green, 
peach, pale, medium and deep blue as 
^vc'il as in clear glass with tlie customarv 
siher backing. Metallic backing-s of 
copper, various shades of bronze or of 



L- 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



EXTRUDALITE Sash 
No 100, 300, 500 



Mastic — 
Cement 

VITR.OLITE 



Frame of ibck 



VITROLUX 



Mirror 




VITROLITE <;cc 
pa^e 40 fordefai 

Pm. sidewalk - 




DETAIL 
al A-A 



jSz^ // "^J-o " 




Show window- 



VITROLITE 



7 



Mirror : 



'■'-' "'''^ ■-„.?. i 



', I 



I ^, ii. » 



>' I 
) ' 

"i 



M 



13 l-l^l'll. 

i:)l, Hi 1,1 III ' 



fca/e ^/4''=J'o" 



t 



ELEVATION ^/BULKHEAD FACING 



DETAILS 



Mc^al moulding 

Ruberoid 

cushion 



rror 



Backing 




£leyaJ:urL 







if like 



. 'u 



I't 




Finish wall 



Wood moulding 
Fell" cushion - — 



rror 



Backing 



Rou^h 
wal 




-Masonry 
or ol-her 

facing 



EXTERIOR 
DETAILS 



DETAILS 
fc^ li "-I-0 



Typical 





NTERIOR 
DETAILS 



aluminum am be obtained lor mirrors 
of citht-r dear or colored glas!) on order, 
li is iKhisablc to consult an L.O.F. 
technician before specifying the use of 
niirrnis -ivith backings other than 

standard. 

L.O.F. Polished Plate Glass for mir- 
rors is characterized h\ brilliance, lustre 
and Ireedom from imperfections. To 
conserve these qualities completely, sil- 
\ering or the application of any metal- 
lic backing should be done in a manner 
appro\ed by the Mirror Manufacturers 
.A.s.soc:iation of America and guaranteed 
for a vear from date of manufacture 
unles,s installation subjects the mirror 
to uiuisuallv severe conditions of 
weatlier. building moisture or continual 
strong sunlight. The Association has 
adopted standards of qtuility and per- 
formance for the guidance of both the 
manufacturer and the user of mirrors, 
Tliese standards shotUd be followed gen- 
crallv bv designers who plan to use 
mirrors in the development ol any t)pe 
of storefront- 



\Vavs of usin,2; L.OT. ^firrors that cmb()d\ approved methods 
of installation are suggested In the drawings abo\^e. Tabular 
data below lists the available sizes and colors of L.OT. Mirrors 
and outlines grading standard:^ adopted by the Mirror Manu- 
facturers Association of America, 



SELECTION DATA FOR LO.F. MIRRORS 



Thick 



nesses 



Thicknesses of clear 
mirrors are the same 
as standard clear 
pi ate glass thick- 
nesses. Colored 
mirrors are uniformly 
%i thick 

Tolerances in thick- 
nesses should not 
exceed — /z-i 



oiors 



Clear 

Peach 

Greer> 

Light Blue 
Medium Blue 

Dark Blue 

Metallic backings 

are available in 
both clear and 
colored mirrors 



Sizes Available 



Any size in all 
standard plate 
glass thicknesses 
up to 126"x 144'^ 

Areas greater 
than this can be 
obtained only on 
special order 



Qualities and Descriptions 



AA Quality: Entirely Free from major 
defects and as nearly perfect as possible. 
May contain only well-distributed fine 
seed and small^ faint hair lines 

A Quality: Central are^ Free From major 
defects; may contain scattered seed and 
hair lines 

No. 1 Qualiity: Central area may contain 
scattered seed and hair lines; outer area 
may contain short scratches and strings 

No. 2 Quality: Hay contain scattej^ed 
seed, Ifght reams, strings, light scratches, 
short Finish, hair lines and bullseye visible 
only From back 



L. 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



PHI IHREE 
MIRRORS 




^^^^^^T. 




LIBBEy. OWENS. FORD 




PLEIE STOREFRONT SERVICE 



T 



O ALL those who own. design or 
build storefronts, Libbev.Owens.Ford 
offers ivithoLit obligation an Advisory 
iVrchi Lcctiiral Service. 

It is not the intention of the trained 
technicians who compose this gi"Oup to 
take the place of the architect or de- 
signer. Rather, their wide experience 
with various tvpes of display and ap- 
plication enables them to suggest im- 
provements in lavouts and economies 
in construction det:ii!s and to serve as 
a source o[ technical mformation. 





EREIOBUY 



Libbev.Owciis.Ford niiikcs all neces- 
sary facing materials and metals to com- 
pose a complete modern storefront lor 
any type of business. The designer, 
working for attractive display, may give 
free rein to his imaginaiion. His skill 
u'ill he supported — - on request — by 
the advice and counsel of men in the 
L.O.F. Advisory Architectural Service 
■\\ho are familiar -^vith c^cry construc- 
tion detail, -^dio can 5upi)ly special parts 
^vhere necessary, suggest unusual uses 
and work out application problems, 



That design may ha\c full expression 
. - . that every step be properly co- 

ordniatcd . , , that the finished result 
shall stand as a creditable accomplish- 
ment for all concerned; is the object of 
the Advisory Architectural Service divi- 
sion. Representatives are available in 
all auctions of the countrv ivhom archi- 
tccts, designers, builders, oivners and 
storefront managers may call upon for 
informaLion and advice regarding any 
phase ol: the Libbey.O\\-ens.Ford Com- 
plete Storefront Service, 



L 0, F. 




L. 0. F, MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONTS 




FRF 






BBEY-OWENS-FORD 




SIOREFRONI PRODUCTS 



B 



KHIND all the prod- 
ucts that i->o iiU(j the 
"' 1..0.F, Complete Store- 
fronts stanrls an indus- 
trial and distributing or- 
ganization \^-ith Facilities 

that make all L.O.F. products easily avail al:)le in 
e\cry section ot the cotuitry. 

In eight modern factories, scientific research and 
nianufacturing ability work hand in hand to preser\'e 
present standards and forge ahead to ne^v frontiers 
of development. 

From start to fmish there is no compromise \\'ith 
quality. Tn.s]>ection checks every step of the wav to 
the enri that e\ery process and product may meet the 
rigid standards L.O.F. has set. The result is that 
L.O.F. (pialit\ finds expression in storefronts that at- 
tract the eve autl in storefront materials that wilt 
properly and practicably suit the purposes toi which 
ihcv are intended. 

SupportintJ fiiis manufactnriny, al:)ility is a ser\'ice 
structine that blankets the couturN. You will (ind 
Fibhev-O^vens.Ford distributors located at strategic 
pf)ints to make L.O.F. complete storefronts quickly 

available. 

More than this, you will find that these distributors 
are tomposed of men — selected i)ecaLisc of their 
abilitv and knonledge of all technical and practical 
phases of application. These men are qualified to 
act in an ad\ isory capacity to help architects, owners 
or builders. 

In convenient central locations these distributors 
m<nntain vvarehouses for prompt shipment. F\ er\ 
distributor carries adequate stocks for I..OT. com 
pletc storefronts to meet normal requirements 
qni(kly and effu icutly. These distributors are in a 
position to sell, fabricate and install complete I..OT. 
storefronts. Many of them maintain a free ad\ isorv 
s(i\i<e to architects as an aid to the economical plan- 
ning and construction of structures in which L.O.F. 
products are to be used. 



COUNSEL AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

NQl'IRIKS reoardiui^ the use oi Fxtiiidalite or 
any one of the Lihhey. Owens. Ford Gla.ss products 
will rccei\-e the (piick attention of a trained Libbey. 
Owen.s.Ford re])resentati\ e. Fie will be competent to 
ansvver almost an\ question \v'hich may arise on the 
technicalities of using these Libbey. Owens. Ford prod- 
ucts. His job. howexer. is bv no means to supplant 
the architect in the eyes of the owner; or to tell the 
architect how to design a structure. But lie has been 
!r;uned in the characteristics ol the products which 
he represents; is completely familiar \\\xk\ the Com- 
panv's policies of sales and distribution: and can 
often g'ive valuable help to the desi<>ner in terms of 
pi-actical iniormat ion on the structural possibilities 
and limitations of Libbev.O\\-ens.Ford products. 

It tioes without sayiiu.^ tliat there is no charge for 
the services of tiiese sales engineers. If some unusual 
desio-n hriuus about a condition ^v-hich reqtiire.s the 
spcciali/cd knovvledge of l.ibhey.O^vcns.Ford tech- 
nicians for its practical solution, these sales represen- 
tati\^es will he glad to see that vour cjiierv is relerred 
to the [)ropci incli\'idual for a complete and authori- 
tati^■e rccoiumcndntion. 

SPECIAL PRODUCTS ON ORDER 

IF THF DFSIGN invoh es Fxtrudalite or glass of 
I any special form or pattern, the experienced 
opinion of Lihbev. Owens. Ford technicians should he 
sought before the design is completed and plans h)r 
its tonstrLUtion \\-ell advanced. L.O.F. materials ha\e 
man\ possibilities for such special adaptations, vet 
constructions other than those that meet conmion 
requirements of recommended good practice should 
be tested jjrior to their adoption. 

Immediately upon receipt of the necessary infor- 
mation on special forms or ])atterns, Libbev. Owens. 
Ford technicians \\'\\\ studv the possibilities ot 
developing tiie product or (oustruction desired. As 
soon as possible thereafter, the) \\'ill hnward to 



L 0. F. MANUAL OF MODERN SIOREFRONIS 



WHEREIOB 
L 0. f. 





1 



YOU the full infonnation and cost figures co\"erIng 
tlu- de\'elopiTiciit of: these special designs. It in Uieir 
estiniatiun, tlic idea woukl pio\L' impractical ui loo 
costly to construct, they will suggest other wavs to 
accc^mplish as nearly as possihle the desired result. 

THE EXTENSIVE USE OF GLASS AND METAL 

AL/i HOUGH til is hook has stressed the- itse of 
, Kxtrudalitc and Libhc\. Owens. Ford Glass prod- 
ucts primarily ui the field of storel'ront |>lanning 
and construction, metal and glass prodticts find an 
extremely wide range of apphcatiou in every type 
of hiiilding and, to \aiying degrees, are ap].^licahlt' to 
e\ erv type of architectural design. This is particii- 
larl) n lie of such materials as plate glass and mirrors, 
colorlul \'itrolite and \'itr<»hi>c. All these, including 



I,.O.F. Flat'dra^\■n Crlass, are particularly adajited to 
the residential field and will imd applicatujii in a 
variety of \vays in every room of the lujuse. Kitchens 
and bathrooms of \^itrolite; picture windows gla/ed 
with j)latc glass or held in Extrudalite Sash; knnin- 
ous panels of glowing colorful X'itrohix — all these 
are applications to which the progressive designer and 
the modern owner \vill he immediarely attracted. 

Use of these products with all their stimulating 
potentialities for the utilization of botii color and 
ii'»ht are su^«ested for theaters, for store interiors as 
weU as exterioi's and also for the development of 
. unusual office Ijuildings, connnercial and industrial 
striictines. Information on such fields of application 
for all L.O.F. products "ivill he gladly furnished hy a 
qualified Lihbey. Owens. Ford reprcsciuati\ e or upon 
application to an) dealer <tr distributor close at hand. 



I 



TTIiT 



PqcIo/ Ohio 
->rd, Ohio 
eston, W. Va. 
>>rsburs, W. V«. 

ff - «port/ La. 



FORD FACTORIES 



^,^■^1. 



UBBEr Owens R>RD 




METAL 



\ 



Li BBEY Owens Ford 

OLA6S COMPANY 




^ 



'CW 



York 



WWlr. i^'jon 



i^tiedpolis 

cago 

iacielphie 
^^-5 City 



Detroit 

Shreveport 

Buffalo 

San Francisco 

Los Angeles 

Cincinnati 

Seattle 

Richmond 

Syracuse 








\ Ltbbey Owens Ford 

cuss COMPAfTY 



S. 



VITROLUX 



iftHbi iiin t\ Ji m 
PLAN OlA.»l 



I J I 
III 



IT 



L 



NICHOLAS BUILDING 



i 



TOLEDO, 



Lbbey-Oweks Ford 

vimociTt 

BLACK 

HFCIUIItUUr 6nD» 
mi POUSHED SDRFiCE 



%^ 



[BLANK PAGE] 




CCA 



INTERNAnONAL 



T 



J",. . 



LIBBEY • OWENS • FORD 



GLASS COMPANY 




TOLEDO, OHIO 



.% 



ii